On Thursday, 24th Jumāda-al-awwal 999, 10th or 11th March 1591, after the lapse of 4 hours, 16 minutes, the Light-increaser of heights and depths filled Aries with Light. The court artificers decked out the halls, and gave spiritual beauty to externals. The material, as well as the intellectual, world became fresh and verdant.


O joyous bride, blame not fortune.
Make ready the bower of beauty, for the bridegroom hath come.
I scent the fragrance of joy in the world's state.
Joy has flowered, and the morning breeze rejoiceth.

Every day there was a fresh feast, and a new market day of 586 thanksgiving to God. On the 6th (Farwardīn) the rank of Zain K. Koka was increased, and he attained the lofty position of 4,000 and the right to drums. On the 9th H.M. entered a boat along with many veiled ladies and proceeded to Mīrzā Kāmrān's garden and enjoyed the spectacle of the variegated spring. On the 17th the presents of the Khān Ā'zim were produced. He had sent some choice elephants and other rarities from Gujarat, and in this way he brought himself to remembrance. On the day of culmination (sharf, i.e. the 19th) when there was a great feast, the Tatta ambassadors obtained an audience. They presented a petition and presents. The purport of the representation was that it was from somnolence of intellect that there had happened what had happened, and that if the tidings of forgiveness could reach (the ruler of Tatta), former stumblings would be rectified. The excuse-accepting sovereign made the envoys hopeful, and a comforting rescript was issued. On 9* Ardibīhisht the lunar weighment took place, and H.M. was weighed against eight articles. There was a season of liberality and largesse.

One* of the occurrences was the recovery of the writer of the book of fortune (A. F.). On 4 Bahman of the preceding year (14 January 1591) his illness had increased, and the physicians conjec­tured that there was a stone in the bladder. They applied remedies, but the pain increased from time to time, consequently skilful per­sons lost hope. This news produced some joy in me, for, from the days of discretion I had no love for life. The currency of hypoc­risy and the worship of the creature made me heart-sore. But as I was inclined* to perform military service, my disposition deviated from the commands of wisdom and became sad. This mixture of joy and sorrow always held possession of my heart, and I cherished the hope that I might tell some tales by the tongue of the sword, and convince high and low of the appreciativeness of the world's lord, and by the words of action reduce to silence the narrow-minded ones who strutted about in the insolence of courage, and cocked the little turban of boasting. Whenever H.M. cast the shadow of his kindness over the invalid (i.e. whenever he visited him), he con­veyed to him the tidings of recovery. The others only nominally encouraged me. Two days before the new year the wise Ḥakīm* Misrī arrived from the Deccan, and was exalted by performing the prostration. At that very moment the kind sovereign sent him to see this one (A. F.) who was prepared for the last journey. His cheerful countenance caused new delight. His skill perceived the inefficiency of the former doctors. He diagnosed the malady and set himself to cure it. In a short time there were signs of improvement and my health continually mended. On the 15th I recovered and performed the kornish, and high and low were once more impressed by H.M.'s knowledge of mysteries. The Divine strength helped me greatly in this sickness. For many years I had been perplexed to comprehend the rational soul, and every proof that former (writers) had brought forward had been criticised by me. It was natural to expect that wisdom would come with equability of the tem- 587 perament, but this is not what happened to me. The thing became clear to me while I was ill, and I reposed in the illuminated spot of intelligence.

One* of the occurrences was the success of Burhān al-Mulk. When on the first occasion he returned unsuccessful, as has already been partially described, he spent his days on his fiefs in Mālwa. At this time, when the Khān 'Āzim went to Gujarat and Shihāb K. died, he went to Rajah 'Alī K. the ruler of Khāndes. He in accordance with the holy commands of the Shāhinshāh strenuously assisted him, and agreed with 'Ādil K. of Bījāpūr that when the latter should march to Aḥmadnagar, he would also send an army from his side (Khāndes). With this idea he sent off some soldiers to remain* in waiting on his borders. Jamāl K.—who was the Aḥmadnagar general—in apprehension that the two forces would join—displayed activity. He took* with him his (i.e. Burhān's) son Ismāīl and hastened to fight the Bījāpūrīāns before Burhān-al-Mulk should join them. After a short conflict he was successful. When Burhān-al-Mulk came to Barār, Amjad-al-Mulk, 'Amat-al-Mulk, Saif-al-Mulk, Shuj'aat K., Jahāngīr K., Ṣadr K., 'Azīz-al-Mulk and other leaders joined him. Without a battle he became secure about that country (Barār). On the very day that Jamāl K. was exulting in confidence he (Jamāl) got this news, and hastily marched without proper plan or preparation. He passed through the defile of Fardāpūr,* and on the 17th a battle was fought near there. Out of farsightedness Rajah 'Alī K. kept Burhān-al-Mulk and the Barār officers apart from one another, and himself engaged in the fight. There was a hot contest, and in it a bullet reached Jamāl K. and killed him. The army of the Deccan dispersed, and a great victory was gained. In a short time Ism'aīl was brought in as a prisoner and was put into confinement. Then the ruler of Khāndes returned after leav­ing some men (with Burhān) and Burhan-al-Mulk quickly went to Aḥmadnagar and became victorious over the whole country.

One* of the occurrences was the arrival of the ambassador of Shāh Abbās the ruler of Persia. From right-thinking and enlightenment H.M. opens his court to all conditions of men. The entangled thereby obtain deliverance. Difference of faith does not play tricks and no dust of difference is raised by their being either strangers or friends. High and low seek for his friendship, and every one attains his desires. At the time when the sovereignty of Persia came to his father Sulan Muḥammad Khudābanda, selfish strife-mongers stirred up dissension in Herat and incited him to assume the supremacy. They made his inexperienced youth the means of obtaining their own ends. The sovereign of Persia came to Khurāsān, but owing to his blindness, the presumption of the ministers (dastūr), and the duplicity of the soldiers, he was obliged to 588 return without effecting anything. He (Abbās) sent Murshid Tabrīzī-to court and asked for assistance. The just Shāhinshāh did not regard him as worthy of an answer. He remarked how could he assist one who contended with his visible god (his father). At this time he represented anew his own purity and the activity of the wicked and selfish, and begged for encouragement. On 6 Khurdād, 16th May 1591, Yādgār Sultan* Shāmlū, who was old in years but of fresh wisdom* and was one of the ancient servants (bābarīān) of the family, was exalted by doing homage. He presented a suppli­cation (nīyazīshnāma) and choice presents. The excuse-accepting sovereign was gracious to the envoy, and held a council about fur­thering his designs. Some were of opinion that he should send one of his sons with an army and take Khurāsān from the Uẕbegs, and in an excellent way obtain the renown of a helper. As the ruler of Tūrān had sent select men one after another and made strong the agreements of unity, this proposition was not accepted. H.M. said it was proper in the first instance to try advice. Perhaps there would be no contest.

I shall here give some* account of the Ṣafavī dynasty, and so refresh the garden of my words. He (Abbās) is eight removes from S. Ṣafī Ardabīlī, and the latter is twenty removes from Imām Mūsā* Kāim. Shāh 'Abbās is son of Sulān Muḥammad Khudābanda, s. Shāh ahmāsp, s. Shāh Ism'aīl, s. Sulān Haidar, s. Sulān Junaid, s. S. Ṣadru-d-dīn Mūsā, s. S. Ṣafī-u-dīn Abū Isaḥaq, s. S. Ṣadru-d-dīn Ibrāhīm, s. S. Khwāja 'Alī, s. S. Amīnu-d-dīn Jabrail, s. S. Ṣāliḥ, s. S. Qubu-d-dīn, s. Ṣalīḥu-d-dīn Rashīd, s. Muḥammad Ḥāfi, s. 'Īwaz, s. Fīrūz Shāh Zarrīn Kalāh, s. Sharf Shāh, s. Muḥammad, s. Ḥasan, s. Muḥammad, s. Ibrāhīm, s. J'afr, s. Ismāīl, s. Muḥammad, s. Aḥmad Ghazzālī Abū Muḥammad, s. Abū-l-qāsim Ḥamza, s. Imām Mūsā Kāim. Fīrūz Shāh lived in Zangān* near Sulaniya Ardabīl. He spent his days in comfort and with a good name. 'Īwaz made his home in Isfaranjān Ardabīl. Qubu-d-dīn established himself in Ardabīl. Piety had a fresh glory from the brow of S. Ṣafī. He strove with himself and became victorious. In order to learn sciences he went to Shīrāz and made the acquaintance of S. S'aadī and other good men. Some pure-minded ones indicated that he might attain the end of his seeking by getting the help of S. Zāhid in Gīlān. He had lighted the lamp of knowledge from S. Jamālu-d-dīn Gīlānī. The fountain-head of the latter was S. Junaid B'agdādī. Of necessity he went thither. He made his acquaintance in the village of Halkgirān.* The Shaikh made over his daughter* to this spiritual son, and increased the glory of his own family. When Ṣāḥibqurānī (Timūr) returned after conquering Rūm (Turkey) he interviewed S. Ṣadru-d- 589 dīn Mūsā in Ardabīl and begged inspiration from him. He asked him what he desired, and the Shaikh requested the liberation of the Turkish prisoners. He obtained this, and many persons belonging to the Ustajlū, Taklū,* Rustāq, Rūmlū, Ẕū-al-qadr, Afshār, Qājār, Ughlū and other tribes were released. Many of them out of grati­tude took the burden of devotion on the shoulder of their heads and chose Ṣūfism* (ṣūfīgarī). The desire of splendour brought out S. Junaīd from the corner of freedom, and the concourse of followers gave him courage. Jahān Shāh of the Black Sheep, the ruler of the two 'Irāqs and Āẕarbaijān became apprehensive on hearing of this, and drove out the Shaikh from his kingdom. He went to Aleppo and from thence to Dīārbekr (Mesopotamia). Uẕan Ḥasan of the White Sheep, the ruler of that country, treated him with respect and married him to his sister Khadīja Begī Āghā. Sulān Ḥaidar was the offspring of this union. When he (Junaid) was killed in battle with the Shāh of Shīrwān, his son was brought up on Ardibīl under the protection of dervishes and sought after supremacy. He placed the red cap of twelve pleats on the head of his followers. When Uẕan Ḥasan got the victory over Jahān Shāh, he gave his daughter Ḥalīma* Begī Āghā, also called 'Alam Shāh Khātūn, in marriage to Sulan Ḥaidar. Three sons were born of this union, viz. Sulan 'Alī Mīrzā, Ibrahīm M., and Ism'aīl M. The last proceeded to revenge himself on the Shīrwān Shāh. Farakh Afshar who had become the Shāh of Shīṛwan fought with him and was defeated. There was another battle and in it Sulān Ḥaidar was killed. Y'aqūb Beg imprisoned his three sons in Iṣakhar (Persepolis). Amīr Qarā 'Uṣmān governed Dīārbekr in the time of Ṣaḥibqirānī and Shāh­rukh M. When he died, he was succeeded by his son Uẕan Ḥasan. He fought with Jahān Shāh the son of Qarā Yūsuf, and killed him. He had two sons Sulān Khalil and M. Y'aqūb. The first succeeded. But as he did not recognise who were his friends, his soldiers left him and joined his brother. In fighting with him (Y'aqūb) he was killed. When Y'aqūb Beg died, the government went to Rustam Beg the son of Maqṣūd Beg son of Uzan Ḥasan. He released Ḥaidar's three sons. Many days had not passed when he got frightened at the number and devotion of their followers. He formed other ideas. The brothers went in distress to Ardabīl. An army followed them and Sulān 'Alī M. was killed in battle. The two other brothers fled to Gīlān, and obtained the help of Kārgiyā 'Alī the ruler of that country. In Muḥarram 905, August 1499, Ism'aīl came to Īrān, and the Sūfīān gathered round him. He pro­ceeded to take vengeance on Farrakh Afshār. The latter was killed in battle. He took possession of that country and proceeded towards 590 Āẕarbaijān. There he was successful. In 907, 1502, at the age of 15, he had the khuba read in Tabrīz in his own name. Instead of the cap of Ḥaidar he introduced the tāj (tiara?) of twelve tarks (gores). He had five sons—ahmāsp M., Altāsh M., Sām M., Rustam M., Behrām M. He fought with Sulān Murād the son of Y'aqūb Beg near Hamadīn, and was victorious. He took possession of 'Irāq, Fārs, and Kirmān. He prevailed over 'Alau-d-daula Ẕu-al qadr, and increased his territories by Bagdad and part of Irāq Arab. He also got possession of Khozistān. He killed Shāh Beg K. near Merv, and Khurāsān up to the Oxus became his. He reigned 24 years, and left the world at the age of 38. On Monday, 19 Rajab, 930, 24 May 1524, he dīed, and his son Shāh ahmāsp succeeded at the age of twelve.* The word ill denotes that year (930). He fought a battle with 'Abdullah K. in Zorābād-i-Jām* and was victorious. Sulan Sulaimān the ruler of Turkey made an expedition against Īrān. The Shāh did not consider it proper to fight a pitched battle, but he attacked Sulān Sulimān's country and protected his own from injury by the Turkish soldiery. Garjistān (Georgia) and Gīlān fell into his hands. He imprisoned Khān* Aḥmad in the fort of Qahaqa. As his second son Ism'aīl M. was perverse and shameless, he summoned him from Herat and imprisoned him. For many years he ruled in Qazwīn with skill and moderation. Many good deeds adorned his reign (lit. adorned the face of his fortune) except that he in 966, 1559, sheltered Sulān Bayāzīd the son of Sulān Sulaimān with his four sons and 12,000 followers, and (then) owing to the instigation of flatterers, who were house-destroyers, stained his hand with the sacred (garāmī) blood of his guests. If the might of the Sulān of Turkey had constrained* him to this, he should not have taken silver and gold for it. He reigned for fifty-four years. On 4 Khurdād* of the 21st Divine year 15 May 1576, at the end of the night, he died of fistula (nāsūr). Some say that he was poisoned by the intrigues (koshish) of Sulān Ḥaidār. The putting to death of Sūfi Ḥakīm Abū Naṣr the son of the Ṣadru* sharīya in the palace supports this view, but some say that Ibrāhīm M. out of enmity with the physician brought this about. When the illness (of ah­māsp) increased, Sulṭān Ḥaidar, at the instigation of flatterers,* took into his head thoughts of greatness. As he was his honoured father's sole vakīl (minister) the thought of supremacy ruined his understanding. At this time the Shāh got better. Though he did not call Ḥaidar to account, yet the latter did not remain in the rank of Vakīl. When ahmāsp died, Parī Khān Khānim his daughter sent for the second son Ism'aīl M. and by stratagem had Sulān Ḥaidar brought inside the female apartments. The leaders of the Rūmlū 591 (Khalfa-i-Rūmlū) Shamkhāl Circassian, Shīb K. Walī Sulān, the Taklū officers and other well-wishers of Ism'aīl M. were on guard. They closed the entrance and exit of the daulatkhāna (palace) and resolved* upon an attack on Sulān Ḥaidar. Meanwhile Parī Khān Khānim from within set about contriving his death. Meanwhile Sulān Maṣtafa M., Zāl Beg, Ḥusain Beg, Pīr K. and other officers of the Istajlū clan to the number of about 10,000 assembled in order to bring out Sulān Ḥaidar. Shamkhāl* took the initiative and went inside and put him to death, and flung his head outside. The tumult ceased. Ism'aīl M. became king and had the khuba recited near Qum. The intoxication of the world led that madman to dis­regard of propriety and to bloodshed. He indulged his disposition for 1 1/2 years, 14 days and died on 3 Āẕar of the 23rd Divine year, 13 November 1577. During his short reign he stretched out his hands to slay his brothers, and other relatives, and the grandees. Out of six* brothers he put to death Sulaimān M., Sulān Maḥmūd M., Imām Qulī M., and Sulān Aḥmad. He also blinded Sulān 'Alī M., and killed Sulān Ibrāhīm M. and Badī'u-z Zamān the sons of Bahrām, and* Sulān Ḥasan M., the eldest son of Sulān Muḥammād Khudābanda. He exerted himself to promote the tenets of the Sunnīs, but did not succeed. Sulān Muḥammad Khudā­banda his elder brother sate on the throne in the 23rd Divine year, and the world blossomed out. The bloody Shah (Ism'aīl) had sent persons to kill him, and this was near being effected, when the report came that he (Ism'aīl) was dead. Unexpectedly he (Khudā­banda) came to power. The administration of justice devolved upon Fakhru-n-nisā* Begam, daughter of Mīr 'Abdallah the ruler of Māzh­indarān, who was his (Khudābanda's) wife. She exerted herself to reunite the disputants (lit. to knit together the broken-hearted), and when the Turkish soldiers proceeded towards Shirwān, and the Persians were defeated and returned, she left the Shāh in Qazwīn and went off to that quarter. After brilliant contests she obtained possession of her own (ancestral) territories. When she returned, the Qizilbāshīs became irritated and put that great lady to death. The beginning of their prosperity rested upon loyalty (ikhlāṣ). Now when they have gone so much astray, I do not know what will be the end of such somnolent ones. The Turkish commotion again rose high, but the Shāh (Khudāband) put an excellent ending to it by the good service of M. Sulaimān the Vizier.