In that delightful plain, where he had the design of entering the city and was looking for the chosen hour, the drums of the New Year beat high, and a new joy filled the brain of the Age. Spring came with exultant face, and brought news of the happiness of the State. Though the officers were sent off to adorn the reception-hall in the city, yet that pleasant plain was also decked out.


On the night of Wednesday, 14th Jamāda-al-awwal 998 (10th or 11th March 1590), after 10 hours and 57 minutes, the Lord of Lights cast his rays on the Sign Aries, and the eleventh year of the third cycle began. The world's lord gave a higher rank to justice and liberality, and the face of joy assumed new splendour. On 2nd Farwardīn he entered the city. From Kabul to Lahore he tra­versed 196 kos, 28 poles, in four months less by two days, and in 53 marches. The whole expedition lasted 10 months, 14 days. He 576 sat on his throne, and prosperity unveiled her countenance. A new day was added to the New Year's day, and a new Spring to the Spring. Every day, a grandee presided at a feast, and there was various joy. On the 10th M. Yūsuf came from Kashmīr, and paid his respects.

One of the occurrences was that Muḥammad Zamān gained a victory over 'Abdu-l-Mūmin Sulān, the son of the ruler of Turān. As he claimed to be the son of M. Shahrukh, and regarded himself as one of the loyal servants of the court, he soon gathered together a number of men. He defeated* many of the Uzbegs. 'Abdu-l-Mū­min marched out to fight with him, and sent on ahead 'Abbās Sultan, Dastam Be, and Ḥamīd Qarāwal and others. They crossed the Amū and made a stockade at Jargān Kūlāb. They thought that the strength of the defiles would be their protection. M. Zamān engaged this advance force and defeated it. In the pursuit, he got near 'Abdu-l-Mūmin, and he was nearly being caught. He escaped by the help of well-wishers.

At this time the peshkash (presents) of Rajah Mān Singh arrived. When he was sent from the court to the province of Bihar, he united ability with courage, and genius with strenuous action. By H.M.'s fortune he administered the province excellently. The refractory became obedient. Pūran Mal of Gīdhaur embarked upon presumption and self-will. The Rajah hastened to his dwelling, and obtained much plunder. Pūran Mal could not preserve the fort which he had regarded as his protection in the day of calamity. The turbulence of his intoxication ended in the lassitude of crop-sickness. He had resort to entreaties, and asked for protection. He produced* noted elephants and choice goods, and uttered thanks­givings. He gave his daughter in marriage to the Rajah's brother Candra Bhān. From there he proceeded to attack Rajah Singrām. He submitted and came forward in a proper manner, and presented elephants and rarities. The Rajah returned to Patna, and from there made an expedition against Anant* Cerūh (?). He obtained much plunder. At this time his son Jagat Singh did good service. He was keeping watch and ward in the town of Bihar. Suddenly Sulān Qulī Qalmāq and Kackena the wicked, who were among the ingrates of Bengal, stretched out the arm of strife. They went by Ghorāghāt and plundered Tājpūr and Purnea. From there they came to Darbhangā. Farrukh* K. failed in courage, and came to Patna. Jagat Singh's happy star made him offer battle, and Far­rukh and the other fief-holders took courage and accompanied him. When they came within seven kos of Ḥājīpūr the enemy did not see 577 in themselves the strength to fight, and fled. Jagat Singh pursued them, and their collections fell into his hands. The Rajah sent the valuable parts of the plunder and 54 elephants to court. They were produced before H.M. on the 23rd (Farwardīn).

On the 26th* Padre Firmilīūn came to court from the port of Goa. Owing to H.M.'s appreciativeness, he received high honour. He possessed abundance of sense and knowledge. H.M. made over some quick-witted and intellectual persons to be instructed by him in order that the translation of Greek books might be carried out. Varieties of knowledge were acquired. Also a large number of Firinghīs and Armenians arrived and brought with them China cloths and other goods of that country. Some time was spent in admiring them.

One of the occurrences was the disturbance of Paklī. A pro­prietor named Hindāl crudely assumed the title of Sulān Naṣīr, and was joined by some wicked men. Ḥusain Beg S. 'Umarī's men did not behave courageously, and so Hindāl took possession of Paklī. H.M. on the 28th ordered Ḥusain to march with many Aimāqs of Badakhshān. In a short time he inflicted punishment (on Hindāl). On 1 Ardībihisht Shāh Qulī K. Maḥram was sent to Mewāt. When H.M. fell from the elephant, some Shaikawatī Rājpūts indulged in evil thoughts, and though their leaders were gathering bliss in H.M.'s service, they plundered Bīrāth,* while a party of them oppressed Rewārī. Shahbāz* K. the collector of that territory behaved in a cowardly manner, and went off to Kūl (Allyghar). Dīala* (?) rose up to plunder, near Mīrtha. On hearing this, Shāh Qulī was sent there to chastise the evil-doers. In a short time the thorn of sedi­tion was uprooted, and the world pacified. On the 9th Ghaznīn K. received favour, and was given Jālaur. From the time that he showed recalcitrancy, the Khān-Khānān gave his home to another fiefholder. After some time he came to court, and always waited upon H.M. As repentance was read on his forehead, H.M. restored his old home to him.*

On the 20th the lunar weighment took place. H.M. was weighed against eight articles, and the needy were gratified. On 2nd Khur­dād Zain K. Koka was exalted by being made the guardian of Prince Parvīz. That new fruit of the garden of dominion was sent to his house.*

On the 4th a great boon was granted by H.M., and numbers of men were comforted. On account of the extent of cultivation, and the goodness of the administration, prices fell very low, and many cultivators were unable to pay the government revenue. In the provinces of Allahābād, Agra, Oudh, Delhi, and the Sarkārs of Sahā- 578 ranpur and Budāon, one-eighth was remitted, and in Sarkārs Sirhind and Ḥiṣār one-tenth. In the Khālṣa (exchequer or crown-lands) this came to 7 krors, 97 lakhs, 81,800 dāms. On the 5th a girl* was born to Prince Daniel by the daughter of Sulān Khwāja. It is to be hoped that she will become a great lady of the age, and that her advent may increase auspiciousness. On the 10th, Paklī was given to the old proprietor.* A long time ago, he had come with his family to court, and had felt ashamed of his former misconduct. At this time news came that Ḥusain* Beg had on account of ignorance entered the mountain defiles, and that the wicked Hindāl had prevailed against him. H.M. meditated sending another force under the charge of a qualified person. At this time Prince Selīm begged for Husain's* forgiveness and H.M. granted his request. He having gained his object, went home. On the 14th, Dhārū s. Rajah Todar Mal came from Jaunpūr and had an audience, and presented his father's servants. They were suitably rewarded.

On the 28th the envoy of 'Abdu-l-Mūmin Sultan was drowned. In crossing the Jehlam his boat sank in a whirlpool. Though the letter was not read, some persons represented that in the intoxica­tion of youth he had demanded the Badakhshan Aimāqs who had gone to court. Apparently* the celestial managers were guiding that infatuated one. Also on this day Khwājagi Muḥ. Ḥusain and Khwāja 'Abdu-ṣ-Ṣamad Kāshī came from Kabul, and had the joy of performing kornish.

One of the occurrences was the fall of rain at the wish of H. M. For some days there had been no rain, and the feeble-hearted were distressed. One of his intimates represented that if a request were made of the Almighty, it would be very proper. H. M. replied that the Creator well knew what was good for his servants, and added some words which bore* the character of knowledge. The other repeated his entreaties, and increased his wishes. H.M. accepted his prayer and on 3 Tīr engaged in prayer. In a short time there was a down­pour, and the world was refreshed.

On the 8th (June 1590) the Khān A'zim M. Koka came to Aḥmadābād. At the end of last year Gujarāt had been taken from the Khān-Khānān and given to him. He, thinking that Mālwa might be better, delayed to go there and petitioned the court. When he came to his senses he went off there, and made proper arrangements.