On 25* Khurdād, 5th June, 1589, after 8 hours 24 minutes, H.M. having marched 1 1/2 kos 18 poles, planted his standards in the city of Srīnagar. Crowds of people arrived and had their desires gratified. 543 There was the glory of largesse and presents H. M. alighted at the lofty palace of Yūsuf K., the ruler of Kashmīr. The quarters of the soldiers (i.e., of Yūsuf's soldiers) were allotted to the various servants, and an order was given that the troops should not be quartered in the houses of the inhabitants.

From Lahore, the capital, to this place (Srīnagar) 97 kos* 7 poles were traversed in 24 marches. Though the number of kos is not great, yet on account of the ups and downs, the distance is very long and difficult. God be praised that a long-cherished wish of H. M. was easily gratified! What former rulers had died wishing for, was attained with a small amount of application. Mountains which pedestrians could not traverse were crossed by H. M. with a large army and numerous elephants! Srīnagar is a great city and has been long peopled. The river Bihat flows through it. Most of the houses are of wood, and some rise up to five* storeys. On the roofs they plant tulips* and other flowers, and in the spring these rival flower-gardens. When it is the rainy season in India, it also rains here,* and, like Turān and Irān, much snow falls in winter. In spring there are showers (bārān). The crops seldom suffer from a deficiency of rain. The praises of the country cannot be contained within the nar­rows of language. Something has been said about this in the con­cluding volume. My brother, my spiritual and physical elder, wrote a great ode in praise of the Shāh and of Kashmīr. I quote some lines* from it.


547 On this day Shahbāz K. was transferred from the great camp (at Bhimbar) to Swād. Mīr Isfarāīnī was sent as sazāwal to escort him thither and to bring Ṣādiq to court. At this time Gohar* Ṣūfī came and paid his respects. He was an emancipated one (āzāda) belonging to the sect of Rīshīs.* Thirty years before this, Ghāzi K., the ruler of Kashmīr, had put his teacher to death on suspicion that some rebels had been sheltered in his house. The darvesh (Gohar) had thereupon become disgusted with life, and had struck a knife into his belly, but did not accomplish his purpose. Next time he thrust his belly against the edge of a wall and a fissure was opened out, whereby his bowels burst forth. But this did not cause loss of life. The portion of the bowel which was inside dried up at its head, and there remained outside about a cubit in length. His excre­ment passed out by this (aperture?). He cleansed the outer portion and put it into a wooden vessel (āwand). H. M. treated that broken-hearted one kindly, and a new rank was given to devotion.

On the 28th (Khurdād) he went to visit Shihāb-u-d-dīnpūr.* This is a delightful spot on the bank of the Bīhat. The planes (cinārhā) there raise their heads to the sky, and the verdure enchants the eyesight. It was stated that whenever soilure was caused by men's visiting the place, or by any bones etc. falling there, they dis­appeared next morning. People said a spiritual squadron came and swept and cleansed the place. When H. M. appointed truthful and acute persons to inquire into this, the tale was found not to have the glory of truth. It was an exaggeration on the part of former eulo­gists, and short-sighted people in their simplicity believed it. On his return he passed by the polo (caugān) ground. Travellers have seldom seen so verdant and charming a spot. On the 31st the Prince Royal was sent off to bring the ladies. He was ashamed of his former mistake, and was continually showing a desire to obtain this service. The Shāhinshāh granted his request and gave him leave to go. Āṣaf K., Mādhū Singh, and some other servants were sent with him. Also on this day he indulged in water-fowling and enjoyed it greatly. Several times he engaged in this sport. The 548 chief huntsmen take hawks on their arm in little boats (zoraqchahā) and let them fly at the proper moment. Those swift birds rush down from the air and hold the waterfowl down* on the surface of the water and sit upon them and convey them to the boat.

One of the occurrences was the arrival of the ladies. Prince Suḷṭān Murād, the Khān-Khānān, Qāsim K. and other servants exerted themselves greatly in improving the road, and in assisting the bearers. The Prince Royal joined them in Pūshāna.* Prince Sulān Murād returned to take charge of the main camp. When they had approached to within two kos, H. M. received them on 9 Tīr, 20th June 1589, and by various kindnesses gave joy to the visitors. The officers who had performed the service received fresh honours.

One of the occurrences was a great flood in Ujjain in Mālwa. It began to rain on the 12th, and this continued for three days. The river Siprā* rose high and the outer and inner lakes (kūlāb) over­flowed. 1700 houses were carried away. Though but few men were lost, yet many animals were carried away by the waves. The flood had reached the gate of the city when the outer lake* burst, and the waters were dispersed.

One of the occurrences was the assessment of Kashmīr. When the able accountants brought forward the subject of the revenue, the just sovereign proceeded to make inquiries. He sent S. Faiī, Mīr Sharīf* Āmulī, Khwājagī* Muḥammad Ḥusaīn to scrutinize the Mararīj* (Marrāj), while Khwāja Shamsu-d-din Khāfī—who had come at that time from Kabul—and the Kuar (Mān Singh) were sent to examine the Kāmrāj.* Though the autumn crop was over, yet they were able by their skill to make an estimate of it. In India the land is divided into plots, each of which is called a bīgha. In the delightful land of Kashmīr every plot is called a patta.* This should be one bīgha one biswa according to the Ilāhi gaz, but the Kashmīrīs reckon 2 1/2 pattas and a little more as one (Kashmīrī?) bīgha. By agreement* with the Government (Diwān) one-third of the produce is paid as revenue. In accordance therewith every village has been assessed at a certain number of kharwārs* of rice. The same amount of khar­wārs is demanded every year without any fresh investigation. The kharwār is 3 mans 8 sīrs* Akbarshāhī. Sometimes they reckon by the trak,* which is eight royal (i e. Akbarshāhī) sīrs. Of the spring (rabī') crop they take for one patta of wheat, barley, pulses, and mustard, two traks as the share of the ruler. In Lār* and its appurtenances the persons deputed to inquire found that 1 man 26 sīrs of wheat, 1 man 26 3/4 sīrs of barley, 1 man 30 1/2 sīrs of pulses and mustard were taken and that in the autumn-crop there was taken from that extent of shālī 12 (rice) (land) one kharwār, from mung (phaseolus mungo), moṭah (P. aconitofolius) and sh, two traks, from gāl and millet four traks. When the unofficial (ghzkhām; papers of every village— which showed the real facts—were obtained, the amount of the ruler's share came to 5 mans for rice, while for mung, moṭah and sh it was 549 1 man 30 1/2 sīrs, from kangnī* and millet it was 2 mans 22 1/2 sīrs. The Mararāj investigators brought back similar reports. As there was abundance of futile talkers and concealers of the truth, and the governor (mirzbān)* of Kashmīr was desirous that the truth should not appear, and the sovereign* had in his mind the enjoyment of sight-seeing, and the cultivators were chiefly soldiers, the assessment was not fixed upon actual facts (qarār-i-wāqa'). The twenty lakhs of kharwārs of rice were increased by two lakhs. Apparently, the far-seeing glance (of Akbar) perceived that an increase in the assess­ment, even though it did not exceed a duly calculated amount, would bring destruction on the cultivators, especially in a newly conquered country.

On the 22nd (Tīr, about 2nd July 1589) H.M. gave leave to the writer to visit Wāhid Ṣūfī. Inasmuch as he has a daily-increasing desire to seek out good and pious men, his blissful servants take pains to search for such. At this time the Malku-sh-sh'ara S. Faiẓī* wrote to this least of men (A. F.): “Here an enlightened anchorite has come into my view. For thirty years he has in an unnoticed cor­ner been gathering happiness on an old mat. Affectation and self-advertisement have not touched the hem of his garment. By dint of inward purity he has come to know somewhat of the Shāhinshāh and though he has not seen him, he bears on his heart's shoulder the burden of his discipleship.” When I brought this to the notice of H.M. he ordered this traveller for the search of truth to go and make a thorough inquiry into the matter. If the account given of him turned out to be true, and he was willing to come, I was to bring him with me. By great good fortune I met in with that bewildered* one, and the old sore of Divine longing opened afresh. For a long time he had lived, like Aweis* and Karkhī, in a ruined habi­tation. As he concerned himself but little with men's customs, some called him mad, and some called him an atheist. He lived apart from joy and sorrow, and took nothing from anybody except broken bread. After many years he assumed an old and tattered cloak. I brought forward the old secret, and laid hold of his companionship. Though owing to the obscurity of my understanding, I did not know the Kashmīrī language, yet I gathered much edification through an interpreter, and there was a new market for my ear. As his heart was much alienated from the sons of men, he could not come out (from his cell). The world's lord was delighted with this news and resolved* that he would go in person, and illuminate the darkness of his hermitage.

One of the occurrences was an exhibition of H.M's knowledge of mysteries. It had been reported to him that the ruler of Kashmīr had in a fit of intoxication thrown one of his ladies from the top of a terrace. One day when he was inspecting the Kashmīr palaces, he, while many lofty windows and watch-towers were around him, said with his pearl-laden tongue: “It seems that Yūsuf must have flung that innocent one from this terrace.” On inquiring this was found to be the case.

Also, on this day, Jagannāth, who was troubled for want of a house, and was wishing for the house of Qarā Beg, performed* the kornish from the top of a terrace. H.M. quickly said to him, “You have come a long way down; the house of Qarā Beg is large and is near: let that be your quarters.” A cry of wonder arose from all. Also about this time, one morning, the sound of singing reached his ear, and he 550 said to Naqīb K: “Can you from the voice make any guess as to the age of the singer?” After much reflection he replied: “It seems to be more than forty and less than fifty.” H. M. said: “I think it is more than twenty and less than thirty.” When inquiry was made, it was found that the age was twenty-five.

At this time he felt a desire for the coming of Miriām Makānī,* and ordered that a petition to that effect should be written to her. With his pearl-laden tongue he said: “Let this verse which my soul has just now uttered be made the preamble to the application.”