The world's lord keeps his eyes open for wonders and regards the old world as a fresh ornament of the Creator. He does not fix his heart to one place, and gathers new affluence from every quarter. But he brings a profound vision to bear on the subject, and mingles knowledge with action. His heart is especially drawn to any place where there is the wondrous work of destiny. Hence he always bore Kashmīr in mind. He kept before his eyes its delightful cli­mate, and when the Incomparable Deity included that charming land within his empire, his wish to traverse it became stronger. Though the eloquent talkers of the sublime banquets deprecated the sovereign's going to such a distance, and putting himself in a corner, these representations were of no avail. He said that God, the author of desires, had implanted in him an irresistible wish, and that Jinnat Āshīyanī (Humayūn) had had the same longing. “Our going thither is, apparently, the fulfilling of his honoured desires.”

Accordingly, on the eve of the 16th (Ardibihisht)* after the passing of 2 h. 48 m. he crossed the Rāvī, and encamped near the serai of Mādhū Singh. He had travelled one kos and 12 bambu-lengths.* Three thousand stone-cutters, mountain-miners, and split­ters of rocks, and 2000 bēldārs (diggers) were sent off under Qāsim K. that they might level the ups and downs of the road. At this stage H. M. gave Sīalkot in fief to Zain Koka. Sarkār Sambal became the jāgīr of Qulīj Khān. Multan was given to Muḥibb 'Alī K. Shahbāz K. was made the Provost Marshal of the Camp (Kotwal-i-Urdū). Raja Bhagwant Dās, Rajah Todar Mal and Qulīj K. were left in Lahore in order that everything might be carried on with their approval. On the 20th he travelled 2 kos 50 poles, and encamped near Shāhdara.* On the 4th (Khurdād) he travelled 4 kos 41 poles, and encamped near the village of Jorā.* After one day's halt he marched 3 1/4 kos 72 poles, and alighted near Aminābād. On this day the Rajah of Radaur* obtained leave to go to his home, and was presented with a choice khilat and 101 horses. His fief was increased by some parganas. After an interval of one day he marched 4 1/4 kos and encamped in the territory of Sitarām.* At dawn he marched 4 3/4 kos 35 poles, and halted at Talwandī.5* Then after one day he passed Sūdhīra* and encamped on the bank of the Cināb. It was a march of 6 kos 41 poles. On this day the festival of the lunar weighment increased joy. That personality which was equal to the sky in majesty was weighed against eight articles, and the world rejoiced. On the 31st he crossed the river* and an order was given that the troops should cross by a bridge, watch by watch, company by company (Caukī ba Cauki ū qushūn qushūn). The march was 1 1/4 kos 51 poles. After two days he reached Gūnacor,* a dependency of Sīālkot. The march was 4 kos 5 bambus. There it was represented to him that Allah Bardī, the agent of Ṣādīq, and Shiqdār of Tīha* Hanū and Rāīj had opened the hand of oppression, and was dishonouring the weak. An order was given that 'Aẓdu-d-daula, Shahbāz and Qāsim Beg* Mīr 'Adil should sit in judgment on him. Soon, his injustice was made manifest, and he received the reward of his deeds. Though his life came to an end, his death was a cause of life to others. Next day H. M. marched 4 1/2 kos 51 bambus and encamped at Ḍīkrī, a depen­dency of Sīalkot. After two days he marched 4 1/2 kos 60 bambus and halted at Jaipūr* Kherī, a village of Bhimbar. On 9th Khurdād (19th May 1589) he went with a few attendants to see the pass of Bhimbar which Kashmīrīs call Kājīwār,* and other hill men, Adī Dat.* He enjoyed being on the top of it. Suddenly it occurred to him that he would go on alone (jarīda), (i.e. comparatively unattended). Sultan Murād was sent off to take charge of the ladies in the camp, and to keep order in the army. Farīd Bakhshī Begī was left in the Pass to prevent any but certain persons who were named, from following. Then he went on horseback and traversed heights and hollows, partly riding and partly on foot. At midday he rested for a while under a tree. There were with him the Khān-Khānān, Zain Koka, 'Aẓdu-d-daula, Ḥakīm Abul Fatḥ, Jagannāth, Mīr Sharīf Āmulī, Qāẓī Ḥasan, Nūr Qulij, Rām Dās, the writer, and some young cavaliers (īkkā jūānān).*

On this day he gave weighty counsels to Burhānu-l-Mulk at the entrance of the pass, and sent him to conquer the Deccan. As iu the time of his elder brother Murtaẓa Niāmu-l-Mulk, the peasantry and soldiers enjoyed some repose, and though he was melancholy and a recluse, yet he kept strong the thread of justice, H. M. did not send Burhānu-l-Mulk—who had taken protection at his court— with an army to that country. When he died, and news came of the disturbances in the Deccan, he recalled* Burhān from the Tīrāh army with the intention of sending him (to the Deccan). The events 539 of that country are as follows: Shāh ahmāsp, the ruler of Irān, had sent Shāh Quli Gurjī (Georgian?) with presents; and he had attained influence in the Deccan, and received the title of Ṣalābat K. For the space of twelve years that Nizāmu-l-Mulk was in seclusion on account of melancholy, the financial and political affairs of the country were conducted by Ṣalābat. As the ruler had not wis­dom, and did not give audiences, there arose a disturbance. Owing to the power of insanity, that man of disturbed brain wrote to out­siders that they should confine Ṣalābat in a certain fort. That excel­lent servant heard of this and betook himself to that fort. Though leading men represented that he should not imprison himself at the word of so insensate a person, it was of no avail. He said he could not depart from his master's order. Afterwards an unchaste woman obtained influence over the madman, and her brother Ism'aīl laid hold of the administration. By his help, M. Khān Sabzwārī obtained influence, and he brought the madman's son out of the fortress of Daulatabad and raised him to power. He (the son) put the madman to death. Soon, the dust of dissension arose between them, and each tried to injure the other. At last, Mīrzā K. got his opportunity and shut him (the son) up in Aḥmadnagar, and raised Ism'aīl S. Burhānu-l-Mulk to the supremacy. Ism'aīl K. Deccāni collected men and besieged the Aḥmadnagar fort. The wretch (Mīrzā K.) cut off the head of his prisoner (Mīrān Ḥusain the parricide) and flung it out, thinking that thereupon the son's well-wishers would withdraw. But they became more eager, and broke into the fort. Mīrzā K. came out secretly and fled, but was caught on the road and put to death. Ism'aīl was raised to power, and he,* out of revenge hunted for the lives of the Irānīāns and Tūrañīans, and 3000 innocen persons were put to death. When H. M. was going to Kashmīr, Burhān came from Tīrāh and H. M. sent him off to the Deccan. An order was given to the Khān Ā'im, the general of Mālwā, to Rajah 'Ālī, the ruler of Khandesh, and the officers, that they should get together a choice army and exert themselves so that Burhān might soon be successful.

When the temperature moderated, he resumed his progress (lit. mounted his bay horse), and traversed the defile between the Serai Jogī and Naushahra, which is called Ghātī Badū.* At one watch of the night he halted after travelling 13 1/4 kos. Some rulers of Kashmīr used to fortify the first pass, when they had wars with the rulers of India, but most of them fortified this one. Few were able to keep up with H. M. on this march, which was full of heights and hollows. Next morning the ravine of Ghạzīkot between Naushahra and Serai Cingīz was traversed with difficulty. After passing Rajaurī, H. M. halted at the tents of Qāsim K. who was proceeding with the work of making the road clear and level. The march was 8 kos 9 poles. As several roads led from this place, and each was full of snow, experienced men were sent off to make enquiries, and a council was held. It appeared that the best route for a large army was by the defile of the Hastī Watar. As it was difficult of passage on account of the large amount of snow and rain, H. M. chose the Pīr Panjāl route. 540 The eldest prince (Jahāngīr) was ordered to go back to the camp, and to bring on Sultān Khhusrū and some of the ladies.* As M. Kaiqabād, the son of M. Ḥakīm, had fallen ill, he was left at this stage and the Maliku-l-Sh'āra S. Faiẓī* was appointed to attend on him. After two days H. M. went on from Rajaurī and marched 3 1/4 kos 19 poles. The camp was near Lāhā, a dependency of Rajaurī. Next day he marched 1 3/4 kos and reposed near Thāna.* This village is at the foot of the defile of Ratan Panjāl. At this place the Kashmīrī language begins. H. M. remarked, countries are divided from one another by hills, rivers, deserts, and language. For the first (three) of these Bhīmbhar is the boundary of Kashmīr, and for the last, this station is. Though the cavalier of fortune's plain was unattended, the Divine glory (far īzdī) was radiating from the august forehead, and wherever he went, crowds of men and women offered up thousands of supplications. Every one of them brought vows of long standing before him, and reaped eternal bliss. At this place the Nayīks who were the guardians of the passes on this route did homage under the leadership of Bahrām Nayīk. Muḥammad Bhat and a number of Kashmīr leaders were exalted by obtaining an audience. Next day he set his face to the defile. First, he crossed the Ratan* Panjā pass, which is high as heaven, and arrived at Bahramgalla. The march was 2 3/4 kos 5 poles. It is a delightful place, and has few equals for climate and for variety of flowers. The special bay horse* which was brought into the pass (kotal) slipped, and no trace could be found of it. Many climbed the pass on foot. On this day there was a disturbance among the special cooks, and the writer was appointed,* in addition to his other duties, to look after them. On the way M. Yūsuf K. came from Kashmīr (Srīnagar) and did homage. A large number of the chief men of the country had the blessing of a reception. Next day the august retinue advanced 2 kos 55 poles, and encamped at Pūshīāna. There were wonderful hills clothed with forests, and numerous flowers and fountains glad­dened the heart. Many bridges are placed over the streams and are called kadal* in the Kashmīrī tongue. As the station (manzil) was filled with snow for more than two kos, H. M.'s fellow-travellers were much frightened, but the encouragements of H. M. soothed them somewhat. As it is the custom for pedestrians, when going over the snow, to use shoes woven out of ropes of rice-straw, most provided themselves therewith, but this was a thing which H. M. did not approve of. Next day the Pīr Panjāl pass was crossed, and the standards of victory were pitched in the village of Dūnd near the pass of Nātī* Barārī. The march was 3 1/2 kos 20 poles. The walking was over snow. Shall I describe the severity of the cold? Or shall I tell of the depth of the snow, and of the bewilderment of the natives of India? Or shall I describe the height of the pass, or 541 speak of the narrowness of the path, or of the heights and hollows of this stage? Or shall I write of the fountains, the trees, the flowers? While crossing, it snowed and hailed. By the blessing of H. M.'s personality, no harm ensued. When the station was reached, it snowed heavily for an hour. Every one of those who were coming behind, and who on that day showed foresight and turned back, arrived at a comfortable place. Some inexperienced persons who went on rapidly lost their lives on account of the snow and rain.