532 An occurrence was the conquest of Swāt. When Zain Koka came to Bajaur, he established forts in some places, and the ill-fated ones withdrew to the defiles. They came out at night and carried off the grain. The Koka arranged that a body of men should wait in every ravine from the beginning of night, and should lie in wait on the skirt of the hill. At midnight some others were sent. When the Afghans came down from the tops of the hills, and were taking the crops, the two forces came from in front and from behind, and chastised them. The fighting went on for eight months, and many were killed. Of necessity, the survivors took the burden of submis­sion upon their shoulders. The Kokaltāsh showed a design to take Swāt. He brought before himself Jagannāth and Āṣaf K. who were in the plains, and proceeded to that district. First, he established a strong fort on the banks of the river Pajkorah (Panjakora) which is the beginning of the entry into the country. The Yūsufzai had collected stones on the roads and were prepared to fight. By the wonders of Fortune, they went by a secret* road. On 9 Ābīn (19th October, 1588) when the enemy were busy holding the Qūrbān-feast,* the victorious troops entered the pleasant country of Swāt. The bewildered Afghans returned, though some bravely gave their lives. Much booty was obtained. The wretches were divided into two parties. Some made a stockade on the hill of Batkhari (?), and some did so in the hill country of Mahra (?). The Koka pursued, and erected forts in Chakdara* and Malakand, etc. He built a fort on the plain near a hill at Sarobī (?). He left capable men at various places. The roads became safe and hill and plain were united. Traders came from every side and things became cheap. At this time Muḥammad Baḥrī* and Malik Aṣghar came from the mountain of Mahra by the route of Sherkhāna to the plain, and invested the fort of Sarobī. Many had gone from there towards Jalālābād, in order that they might convey the caravan. Ḥamīd K. came out with a few men and fell bravely. The sons of S'aid K. had not the courage to come and help him, but by the excellence of destiny* the enemy was not able to take the fort. They left what they had collected and fled. As there did not remain much work in Swāt, Aṣaf K. got leave to go to court. He went off post from Malakand. Some servants were coming after him. Suddenly they beat high their drums, and terror seized the enemy, and they fled, after flinging away many of their goods. Afterwards Abu-l-Qāsim Tamkīn and Sher K. were left on guard there, and the work was properly done.

One of the occurrences was the punishment of Kālū K.* He is the wicked man who absconded after receiving so many favours 533 from the Shāhinshāh. He chose the companionship of the turbulent. The Afghans of Damghār (?) chose him for their leader and went off to the hill of Mahra with the idea that something might be done. When the Kokaltāsh heard of this, he made a night march. The vanguard beat their drums, and the Afghans dispersed. Though the wretch himself escaped, yet more than seventy men were killed. Also at this time Muḥammad Baḥrī and Malik Aṣgharfell upon Sarobī. Mīr Abu-l-Qāsim came out to fight, and Sher K. who had been at Ghanjī (?), appeared at the time of the fighting. Nearly 400 Afghans were killed, and the power of the villains was somewhat broken.

One occurrence was the submission of Rajah Rūdar, the ruler of the Kumāon hills. He is one of the great landholders of India. Though on account of the strength of his country, and his listen­ing to the stories of his ancestors, he had not come to court, yet he used to exhibit deference and send presents. At this time, when Mathurā Dās Sahakal went to the Collectorate of Bareilly, he had an interview with him (Rūdar) and suggested an union of concord, and endeavoured to induce him to come to court. He replied that he had long cherished such a wish, but he had no proof that he would attain such a blessing by his (Mathura's) protection. If Rajah Todar Mal would take charge of him, he would come. The Rajah sent his son Kalyān Dās to reassure him, in reliance on him he came and paid his respects. On 9 Āẓar he obtained this felicity.*

One of the occurrences was the punishment of the Yūsufzai. They were much disturbed by the fort which had been founded on the top of the ravine, and were lying in wait to attack it. Now they united with the men of Mahra and attacked it. There was a hot engagement from dawn till evening. The broken nature of the ground and the height of the hill made the contest a long one. At last the breeze of victory blew, and many of the evil-minded ones were killed. In a short time the fort was completed and was a means of keeping the refractory in check.

One of the occurrences was a great act of liberality on the part of the Shāhinshāh. Owing to civilisation and justice there was a great cheapness of articles so that it was difficult for the peasantry in some provinces to pay the revenue. Accordingly in the spring instalment for the provinces of Agra and Delhi a deduction of one-sixth was made, and for the autumn instalment a deduction was made of one in 4 1/2 and in Agra, Oudh, and Delhi of one-fourth. In the 534 exchequer lands this came to 19 krors, 32 lakhs, 80,175 dāms. From this an estimate can be made of the amount of the reduction in the fiefs. Also, at this time, Zain Koka did homage. When Swāt and Bajaur had been in some measure settled, ṭhe Kokaltāsh was summoned to court, and an order given to Ṣādiq to hasten there (Bajaur) and reduce to obedience the remainder of the refractory to obedience. On 15 Bahman the Kokaltāsh arrived at court.

One of the occurrences was the disturbance caused by Ṣāliḥ. When Wazīr died, Shahbāz made over the subordinates to Ṣāliḥ who was Wazīr's son. He did not know that in matters of chiefship and generalship, relationship and the good deeds of ancestors are of no avail. They cannot be accepted in the absence of discretion, capacity, etc. When Shahbāz K. went to pay his respects, the wicked Ṣālīḥ, owing to bad associates and the keenness of his desires, imbibed crooked thoughts, and was waiting to make a disturbance. Before the veil of his reputation was rent, an order was issued. Mīr Murād, who had gone as sazāwal of the Amīrs of Bihār and Bengal, enlisted every one of Wazīr K.'s soldiers who was willing to serve the Amīrs of these provinces, and brought the others along with the son to court. Sāliḥ made difficulties about going, but as Mīr Murād knew his business, they were of no use. Willing or unwilling, he had to set out. Every day he was looking for an opportunity, and his ideas of making a distur­bance were gaining force. Mīr Murād wrote letters to all the fief-holders of the country, and made proper arrangements. Owing to the number of the Shāhinshāh's adherents, every wile that Ṣāliḥ thought of came to nought. As he always practised feline tricks and used cajolery, the local officers quarrelled among themselves and (Mīr Murad?) did not arrest him (Ṣāliḥ). But out of prudence they (he?) put men along with him. When Ṣāliḥ came to Jaunpūr, he deceived the Rajah's son* and so from simplicity and bribery the latter did not send any one with him. The Mīr was obliged to go on, and Khwājah Khalīl* had the good feeling to separate from Ṣāliḥ and to join (the Mīr). Meanwhile the base fellow (Ṣāliḥ) lavished gold, and collected fly-like men. He got together a number of musketeers. Khān Kamāl and Bahaī K.—two wicked Afghans—joined him with many others. Near Fatḥpūr Hanswa* he marched to the Mīr's quar­ters with an army of rascals. The Mīr used foresight, and entered the fort of Fatḥpūr Hanswa. The hare-brained fellow besieged him there, and also set about plundering. He made shelters out of cattle- 535 hides and arranged ladders, and set fire to the town, and plundered it. He was nearly taking the fort. Suddenly, the fief-holders of the country-side heard of this commotion and arrived there. The first of all to come was Allah Bakhsh Maral, and he brought a good contin­gent. When the Rājah's son knew about the misconduct, he sent off Allah Bakhsh from Jaunpūr, and felt ashamed of what he had done. When able men arrived, the scheme of the rebels failed. Sāliḥ was bound and taken to court. S. Ibrahim sent him with his own men. On 20 Bahman he was brought before H.M. whose kindness sent to prison one who was worthy of death. On 1 Isfandārmaz (11 February 1589) H.M. distinguished the writer's brother S. Abu-l-faiẓ faiẓī— who was my elder in years and in knowledge—by the title of Maliku-sh-sh'arā (king of poets). Assuredly he is unique in all departments of poetry. He writes delightfully in Persian and in Arabic, and scatters pearls without stint. By the strength of his genius he com­poses works of art (ḥikmatnāmhā) and civilizes the age by his talents. Two or three days before this he extemporised an ode These are some lines of it.