It is an old rule that when good intention and choice action meet together in a seeker after fortune, Almighty God grants him the easy realisation of every wish that he may entertain, and even spiritual and physical successes for which he has as yet framed no wish rise up and serve those favourites of fortune who possess those 502 two attributes (good intention and choice action). Accordingly the circumstances of the world's lord tell of this, and this book in some measure recites the fact. The conquest of this country was a new instance. Whoever knows a little about the ravines of the road to it will understand that no thought of strange conquest troubled the minds (of the inhabitants). On all four sides, mountains which raise their heads to heaven act as sentinels. Though there are six or seven roads, yet a large army cannot march rapidly by them, and in every one of them there are places where if some old men rolled down stones, the bravest of men (lit. men of men) could not pass. On this account, former princes did not think of conquering it and prudence turned then away from such a wish. For a long time H.M. had cherished the thought of conquering it, but the fluent talkers of the court, who could not advance a step beyond super­ficiality, could not conceive such an idea. When the standards of justice cast their shadow over the Punjab, the thought became keener, and though the leading officers of the court sent out armies badly equipped, the stewards of fate stood firm and worked wonders. In the first place, the wicked Y'aqūb increased in presumption and became refractory. He heard of the confused condition of the victorious army, and abolished the treaty. Panegyrists and flatterers induced him to take the title of Shāh Ismā'īl. He took evil ways to be virtues and voluntarily trod the desert of failure. He fell into improper desires, and by his tyrannical exertions stirred up the hearts of the people against himself. He did not do the work of the world and took part in religious disputes. He was passionate and a molester of mankind. Though in that country the laws of Brahmanism (Hinduism) and of Sākyamūnī* used to prevail, yet for a long time there had been a predominance of the Sunnīs and Shī'as. By Time's jugglery each prevailed over the other for a season, and the booths of self-auctioning were tricked out. By the dexterity of practical men, the screen of moderation had been hung, and the dust of dissension not allowed to rise. But now he (Ya'qūb) drew back the veil of respect and set himself to vex the Sunnīs. He put to death the aged Qāẓī* Mūsā, and had his house and home plundered. The dormant turbulence awoke, and Shams Chak came forward to contend for the supremacy and to take vengeance. Muḥammad Bhat—who was the wily Dimna* of the country—got his opportunity and widened out the arena of evil thoughts. He urged the muddle-headed youth secretly to get rid of Shams* Chak, 'Ali Sher Mākrī, Saiyid Ḥusain and the other leaders of that sect (the Sunnīs). They got nows of this, and proceeded along the same road that he had intended to pursue (meaning, apparently, that they too meditated assassination). Muḥammad withdrew himself, but was caught after a little search, and when he was put into prison, Shams Chak determined on having the mastery, and became promi­nent. Ya'qūb also took up arms. Suddenly, the sound of the vic­torious army robbed high and low of endurance, and by the elo­quence of men of the world a peace was brought about. The dis­trict of Kāmrāj* was surrendered to Shams Chak, but in a short time 503 the unfortunate Ya'qūb forgot the agreement and led an army against him, and by alertness got the enemy into his clutches.

When the victorious army marched from Court, there was a daily market of foolish talkers, until it came to the Cīnāb. They imagined that the completion of the work would be very difficult. When they had crossed the river, the news of the bad behaviour of Ya'qūb, the mutual disputes, and the imploring letters of the chief men of the country, and, in particular, of 'Alī Sher Mākrī, arrived, one after the other. The skilful who could read the future from the appearance of the present, and recognise the conclusion from the beginning, recited the tale of victory, and prepared* for battle. Every one recognised his place. The centre was adorned by the presence of the General. In the right wing were Masnad 'Ālī, Fatḥ K., Mubārak K., and others. In the left wing were Jalāl K., and other battle-seeking heroes. In the vanguard were Mīrzā 'Ālī Akbarshāhī, Gūjar K., Shaikh Daulat, Sharīf Sarmadī and a number of Aḥadīs and other gallant men. On 21 Shahriyūr (1 September, 1586) they passed through the defile of Bhimbhar. Selīm Zamīndār disappeared (lit. went aside). Qāsim K. wisely made Bahlol his brother's son the chief, and preserved tranquillity. In a short time the devious one (Selīm) also joined the army. In Rajaurī, Bahrām Nā'yīk,* Isma'īl Nāyīk, and Shankī Charwar, who were the chief con­ductors of the Passes, came and paid their respects. They offered up good wishes for the conquest of the country. They represented that the ungrateful Ya'qūb had fled to the corner of contempt, and that the heads of the country were looking forward to the arrival of the army. They said there were two roads from that place (Rajaurī). One was the Kapartal,* and this was the most open of the routes. The other was the Pīr Panjāl. They were the warders of both. If they marched quickly, the oppressed would obtain justice and repose. This news was received with delight, and there were feastings. In accordance with the opinions of the skilful and well-intentioned, the Kapartal route was chosen. The new-comers represented that owing to the difficulty of travering the passes, and the largeness of the army, there would be delay in arriving, and that the Kashmīrī chiefs were waiting* on the hill in expectation of the arrival of the army. It would be advisable to send some capable men on in front. The first thing to do was to raise their (the Kashmīrī chiefs') hopes by princely favours, and then to march rapidly into the city, and beat high the drum of victory. These statements were weighed and considered, and Ya'qūb and Jai Tawāchībāshī, and Sher and Selīm were sent forward with some musketeers. Shankī Chārwar accompanied them, and the main body of the army followed afterwards. When* they got to the top of the Kapartal Kotal a different state of things appeared. At 504 the top of this pass three walls with a thickness of four yards and a height of ten yards had been erected. Also beams thirty yards long had been intertwined. The ancients too had cast a spell on the place, so that when a foreign army passed, there were snow and ice and hail. Accordingly a wonderful commotion arose. In such a tempest they traversed hills and declivities and arrived near the pass of Akrambāl(?). There the snow increased, and many animals died of the excessive cold. At this time some musketeers who had gone forward with Jai, arrived at the camp in a wounded condition, and reported the treachery of the Kashmīrīs. There were three great passes (garīwa) on the route, and all the world was elo­quent about the difficulty of them. It had been represented that the Kashmīrīs were waiting at Hastī Watar* which is the third range (garīwa) from India, and the first from Kashmīr. The advance party did not find them there though it appeared* that a body of men had come and then gone back. They asked Shankī Chārwar* “Why did they come and why did they go away?” He replied, “Apparently they went back through fear that Ya'qūb would seize the top of the hill.” Meanwhile Muḥammad Land, Dilāwar K., Bahādur K. and a number of the Kashmīrī leaders arrived and proceeded to give battle.* Shaikh Ya'qūb had two wounds and fell, and nearly died. His friends saved him. Jai fell on the ground with twelve wounds. Some fought bravely, and slept the last sleep. All at once there was a storm of rain and snow, and the men were discomposed. Jai has been heard to say that he lost his senses in that snowstorm, and that while he was insensible H.M. appeared to him, and bade him take courage. At that moment his senses returned to him, and he acquired strength. But the many wounds, the heavy snow, the loneliness, and the pangs of hunger bewildered him. Suddenly some men appeared and he was taken up and carried to Shams Cak who treated him kindly and sent him to the city.