The odours of the workshop of the springtime of singlehearted­ness, and the vision of the masterpiece of the pinacothek of far-seeing wisdom which the garland-twiners of friendship's garden had decked, and the written characters of the artists of the delight­some picture-gallery of the high-born one, who is the glory of throne and diadem, unveiler of the countenance of wisdom and knowledge, distinguished legislator* of the philosophic world (?), great lord of the universe of justice, enkindler of the lamp of the Khāns, uplifter of the royal* umbrella, at that most excellent of seasons, when the drums of the New Year were beating with a world-cherishing sound under the blue dome, and the great Luminary, the Universe's Donor, to wit, the world-warming sun, the enthroned Sulṭān of Day, Dictator of the seven climes of the elements, and the bodies, had cast his glorious shadow over the heads of one and all, and when the gales of spring were breathing the vegetative souls into the frames of the newcomers to the realms of earth and water, and the March-winds* had washed the dust-worn squadrons of the army of spring. The foundations of friendship rose up anew, and the laws of singlemindedness received fresh honour. The cordial words of love, kinship, unity and well-wishing which had imbibed a fra­grance from the perfumed pen, and had flowed from the jewelled reed have been received and have been much appreciated. They have greatly rejoiced us.

It will not be hidden from your wise heart and your heaven-reaching perception, which is a treasury of Divine mysteries, and a mirror of the face of understanding, that this suppliant at the gate of the unconditioned (beniyāz) One hath during the thirty years which by Heaven's aid he hath spent on the throne of prosperity, ever kept before his eyes the truth that all this autocracy and world-rule, all this sword-bearing and clime-conquering, are for the purpose of shepherding, and for doing the work of watch and ward; not for the amassing of treasures of gold and silver, or for decorating the throne and diadem, or for letting one's feet halt in the mud of transitory pleasures, or for sinking the head into the collar of unstable desires. Hence, there has ever been nought but goodness and good-will towards friend and foe, kinsman and stranger. 498 There hath been a constant stirring towards the soothment of mortals, whether high or low, and for graciousness to men of the age, whether anear or afar. God knows that the cleansing of the four* dāngs of India, and the sweeping away of the weeds and rubbish from this garden, which is bounded on three sides by the ocean, did not proceed from self-will and self-indulgence, and that we had no object except to be kind to mortals, and to obliterate the oppressors. Hence it is that wherever I turned myself, difficult things were easily accomplished, and that the face of satisfaction emerged beauteously from the veil of hope. When our amiability was such to the others of God's servants (i.e. mankind), what could it be to that highborn patrician who belongs to the noble and befriended ones of the palace of sovereignty, and with whom we were linked by the bonds of ancient affection and near relationship. To the eyes of the acute and prudent it is evident that any one of these ties is sufficient. And when all of them are together, it is evident that there can be nought but unison. This singlemindedness is the material of the civilization of the world, and the bond of mankind.

With regard to the intimations* about stopping letters and intercourse, though in the eye of reason, silence is better than speech in such matters, yet we shall overlook this. We consider, however, that lengthy discourse about these things is unfitting, and so content ourselves with this verse which has been written con­cerning glorious ones of the Faith.


Of God, people have said that He had a son; of the Prophet they have said that he was a sorcerer.
Neither God nor the Prophet has escaped the slander of men. Much less I!

God be praised! From the beginning of our existence and from the emergence of the rays of the light of the Sulṭanat which is yoked with auspiciousness, the straight path of religion and faith, and the right road of truth and certainty have been the desire of our eyes. Assuredly, in accordance with the saying that rule and faith are twins, the elevation of the degrees of august sovereignty, and the uprearing of the standards of daily-increasing fortune are a full and satisfactory proof of our observance of the Faith. May Almighty God keep all fixed and stable in doing His good pleasure! And as the sum total of the desires of just princes, who sit on the thrones of greatness, is that all mankind and every crea­ture, who are the wondrous deposits of the Almighty, should abide in peace and tranquillity, and should strive strenuously in obeying God, and in the ways of a well-intentioned life, we have during this time striven for the arrangement and ordering of these extensive dominions, which were the seats of so many great sovereigns and rulers, and have by God's favour, which attends this suppliant at the Divine gate, obtained full repose by the management of these countries. Places which from the time of rise of the sun of Islām till the present day had not been trod by the horse-hoofs of world-conquering princes and where their swords had never flashed, have become the dwelling-places and the homes of the 499 faithful. The churches and temples of the infidels and heretics* have become mosques and holy shrines for the masters of ortho­doxy. God be praised! What we wished for has been accom­plished, and arrangements have been made in accordance with our desires. All the leaders and stiff-necked ones of the hosts of Hin­dus and others, have placed the rings of obedience in their ears and been enrolled among the victorious armies. All classes of mankind have attained joy. We too in accordance with the principle “Do* good as God doth good to thee” devote our energies towards promulgating the laws of kindness, the laying the foundations of justice, the spreading of the lights of benevolence, and the irrigating of the gardens of men's hopes and peace, with oozings from the clouds of graciousness, and beneficence, so that they may be kept fresh and verdant.

I have kept before my mind the idea that when I should be entirely at liberty from these tasks, I should, under the guidance of God's favour, undertake the destruction of the Feringhi infidels who have come to the islands (jazā'ir-i-daryā-i-, query, peninsulas?) of the ocean, and have lifted up the head of turbulence, and stretched out the hand of oppression upon the pilgrims to the holy places. May God increase their glory! They (the Franks) have become a great number and are stumbling-blocks to the pilgrims and traders. We thought of going in person and cleansing that road from thorns and weeds. But as we heard that some of the officers of Persia had proved disloyal to their sovereign, and had cast away the firm handle of fidelity—which had been the means of their exaltation—and had committed various improprieties, it passed into our mind that we should appoint to that region one of our sons—from whose forehead there streamed the rays of auspicious­ness, and in whose horoscope were the lights of justice—and not undertake any other work until that was disposed of. At present when the Sulṭān of Turkey, regarding the treaties and agreements made by his father and grandfather as non-existent, has looked to the ostensibly feeble condition of Persia, and has, several times, sent his troops there, we shall, passing over the circumstance of the deviation from the highway of Sunnism (sunnut-u-jamā'at) and looking only to the relationship (of that dynasty) with the family of the Prophet, proceed thither and help them. Assuredly, ancient things should be borne in mind, especially at this time when, as we hear, the ruler of Persia has dispatched able men of that country (to us) with presents, and with a prayer for help. It befits our sublime spirit that we should fling out the reins of interest towards 'Irāq and Khurāsān. It also appears to us that as the ties of friendship and relationship with that workshop of sovereignty ('Abdullā) have existed from old times, and have been revived by the sending of a loving letter, in company with that asylum of Saiyidship and magistracy, Mīr Quraish, and when the bonds of affection have been thereby strengthened, you also should proceed from your dominions towards that country so that it may become a meeting of the two seas of glory, and superiority and the rising of the two auspicious planets of splendour and beauty. 500 By oral communications, without the intervention of couriers and messages, the foundations of love and unity may be made stronger, and various heartfelt words, and secrets allied to truths, which are concealed in our hearts, and also matters of theology and observance of the truth may be mentioned in the friendly meeting, and we may also hear the refined subleties in the matters of Divine knowledge which have cast their rays on the soul of that workshop of magnificence ('Abdullāh). The cream of life and the excellence of prosperity consist in sociability and spiritual intercourse, especially when between two chosen ones of God who have been glanced upon by the court of sublimity. Assuredly, this proceeding would be the cause of general excellence at that time when by God's help this wish shall be realised— inasmuch as the ambition of those who are approved by God and have been exalted by him is to do what is well-pleasing to him, and not to acquire name and sway among men. Accordingly it is our heart's desire—and we hope that it is also yours—that we may have intercourse with one who is eminent for his knowledge and following of the truth, and that we may be in union with him and not depart from his counsel. Now that the association of concord and agreement is patent to all, what is proper in the matter of assisting the rule of 'Irāq and Khurāsān will come forth from its inner ambush to the world of manifestation.

The apologies* which you have made with a loving pen with regard to the catastrophe of our honoured protegé (farzand, lit. child) Shāhrukh Mīrzā have delighted our justice-loving heart. True it is, he, on account of youth, self-conceit, and bad companion­ship, has exhibited so many improper actions. Each one of these causes has contributed to his affairs coming to such a pass. In the first place, on account of the promptings of some short-sighted persons, he has many times failed on obedience to ourselves. Secondly, he has not behaved to your noble self in a becoming manner. Thirdly, he has behaved in such an improper manner to his venerable grandfather, who had so many spiritual and mate­rial claims upon him. Every chastisement that has come upon him has been of the nature of a Divine monition and inspiration. Now that he has awakened from the sleep of negligence, and has turned towards the strong handle of our graciousness, we cannot be other­wise than kind and forgiving to him. We hope that, in accordance with your noble nature, you will overlook his transgressions.

In order to strengthen the foundations of affection, we are sending the wise and loyal Ḥakīm Hamām, who is a sincere speaker of truth and a rightly-acting disciple. From the beginning of his service he has been in close attendance on us, and we never had the thought of sending him away. When such has been his rela­tionship to us that he has made suggestions to us without the intervention of any one else, if similar treatment be accorded to him in your noble audiences, it will be as if we and you were con­versing 501 directly with one another.

In order to convey our condolences for the death of the par­doned and blessed Sikandar K. we had appointed that reservoir of Saiyidship and high magistrate Ṣadr Jahān, who is one of the great and holy ones of this country. From various causes there has been delay in tendering these. We now are enabled through his kind­ness to send him.

We are sending some specimens of presents under the charge of the excellent Muḥammad* 'Ali along with a separate list. May we always continue to interchange letters and presents! We have been delighted by your procuring and sending fairy-flying pigeons from Farghāna, and the able pigeon fancier, Ḥabīb. We have felt the fragrance of your love and concord in this. Though at first sight the regard for a handful of feathers seems but sportiveness, yet, on further consideration it will appear that the evolutions (charkh u bāzī) and play of those birds remind us of the ecstacies of the lords of enthusiasm, and lead to a contemplation of the Deity. God who knows the secrets of the hearts, knows that our apparent and casual occupation with such things is but a veil over the beauty of devotion to the First Cause, and that our soul is not satisfied with the simplicity (mujarrad) of outward wings and feathers.