The parterre-adorner of sovereignty (the sun) brightened the face of joy with the news of the arrival of the New Year. His servants adorned hill and plain, and joined form and spirituality. On the eve of Friday, 29 Rabi'-ul-awwal 994, 10 or 11 March 1586, after the passing of eleven hours, thirty-seven minutes, he cast his rays on Aries. The city became fragrant, the plains grew beautiful.


You complained just now that the leaf-scattering Bahman had arrived.
Look up and behold the garden, for Bahman has passed away.
In the thunder of the sky hear the sound of the drum.
The world holds a bridal, for the garden
Comes in bridal dress.

The sagacious sovereign celebrated a great feast, and made great and small partakers of joy. On 19 Farwardīn (28 March 1586) —which was the supreme feast—Mīrzā Shāhrukh, Rāja Bhagwant Dās, Shāh Qulī Khān Maḥram and other officers obtained an inter­view. They brought the ruler of Kashmīr to court. He was privately asked why the kindnesses of the Shāhinshāh had passed from his memory, and why the influence of his son—who had fled from the court—had increased, and had by stratagems turned back the victorious army. Why had he himself not added the glory of acts to his talk about peace? He had the grace to be ashamed, and to reply by silence. H.M., out of kindness, had resolved upon restor­ing Kashmīr to him, but the imperial servants represented that he ought to have some punishment for his backslidings, and that Kash­mīr should first be conquered, and afterwards restored to him. H.M. accepted this view and made him over to Rāja Todar Mal.

On the same day, the troops that had been sent to Balūchistān arrived, and Ghāzī K., Chīta, Bahādur K., Nuṣrat K., Ibrāhīm K. and other Balūc leaders were received. When the troops went to that country, the land-owners were at first somewhat refractory. But as there was goodness in their dispositions, they quickly understood what was right, and took the path of supplication. Their prayers were granted, and they were honoured with robes and horses. The country was restored to them.

Also, on this day Rāja Todar Mal returned from the hill-country of the Yūsufza'īs and did homage. He made over the chastisement 489 of the Afghāns to Rāja Mān Singh.

One of the occurrences was that the troops attacked Berār. It is a country in the south, and is adjacent to Mālwa, and so an account of it has been given in the final* volume.

Inasmuch as the rulers of the Deccan did not obey properly, the Khān A'zam Mīrzā Koka was appointed to punish them. He went to Hindia, and arranged for an expedition. He sent a body of troops and took Fort Sānolī* from Nāhar* Rāo. The latter sub­mitted, and so did the other landholders, after a slight conflict. H.M. gave choice pieces of Mālwa to M. Koka in fief. When the appointed officers met, there arose dissensions among them. The C. in C. became confused on account of suspicions,* and the work fell out of gear. Shihābud-dīn Aḥmad K. was vexed, and went off to his jāgīr without leave. The C. in C. came after him in order to fight him. Instead of having recourse to supplications, he (Shihāb) prepared for battle; though, by the endeavours of prudent men a contest was averted, they did not act together. In consequence of the intrigues of foolish persons, Tūlak K.* who was an old (bābarī) officer, became sus­pected, and was sent to prison. That memorial of former sages, Amīr Fatḥullāh Shīrāzī, was much harassed, and returned from the ruler of Khāndes without having effected anything. He sorrowfully went to the Khān-Khānān in Gujārat. The soldiers were perplexed by the delays and dissensions. The enemy who had been alarmed, took courage. Rāja 'Alī the ruler of Khāndes, Farhād K., Jamshīd K., Adar K., Mīr Toqī and the rest of the Berār and Aḥmadnagar armies gathered together and set off to give battle. The imperial grandees awoke in some measure from the sleep of negligence, and assembled to consult. How could the work be carried on when the friend was not distinguished from the foe, nor humility from hypocrisy? From their double-mindedness, they did not see in themselves the strength to fight. Nor could they act unanimously. They turned aside from confronting the enemy, and went off to Berār. They sent their baggage to a place of retreat (gosha. a corner) and went off rapidly. On the route, Hatīā* Rāo, a land-owner, was put to death on suspicion of his acting a double part. Without proper inquiry, a body of troops was sent hastily to Kherla, and it did not effect its purpose. Much injury happened to the baggage-animals. After many exertions they found Berār empty and ravaged it. On New 490 Year's Day they took Elichpūr, the capital, and plundered it. Some were of opinion that they should not draw rein till they reached Aḥmadnagar, but a large number thought that they should keep hold of such a flourishing country, and that they should march gradually. After the talk of ignorant men, no one put his hand to any work. The army, having with it abundance of spoil, proceeded to Gujarāt. The idea was that when the enemy came up, and things should become critical, the soldiery of Gujarāt would be stirred up to render help, and that the spoil would not be lost.* The enemy was aston­ished at his turning back and proceeded to take advantage of it They left their artillery and other equipage behind and followed (the imperialists). They sacked Hindia, and set fire to it. No strength remained to the imperial troops on account of their having had to march through so many difficult defiles. Many men could not keep up. The imperial troops were seen to be retreating, and the dust raised by (the enemy's) scouts became visible. A por­tion of the imperial army had a fight near the town of Chāndaur with the land-holders there. Though much plunder was obtained, Ḥājī* 'Abdullāh Sulṭān Kāshgharī was killed. He was the son of 'Abdur-Rashīd, the ruler of Kāshghar. Near Khāndes, Muḥ. Qulī Uzbeg deserted from the enemy and joined the imperial army. He described the weakness and fewness of the foe, and represented that if they turned round and gave battle they would be victorious. They could bind him, if they liked, and take him back with them. If his account did not turn not to be correct, they could kill him. A council was held, and by the endeavours of experienced men a battle was resolved upon. One day was spent in preparation. Owing to the prating of unexperienced men, and the fears of the general, the drums of retreat were beaten at dawn. They went on rapidly without keeping in touch with one another. The animals and the baggage went off at night while the officers marched by day. The courage of the enemy was increased by this behaviour, and they pursued with boldness. Twice there was a slight engage­ment between the rearguard and the enemy's van, and the latter was defeated. Though they did not recognize their superiority, and the Deccan was surrendered after it had been gained, yet much booty was obtained. On the 22nd they halted at Nadarbār, and rested. Before this, some Deccanīs had come into that region, and stirred up strife. The land-agents of Qulīj K. had not treated the peasantry with consideration, and had departed. When the imperial army arrived, the thorn of rebellion was uprooted, and the enemy retired from Khāndes. The Khān A'am went on rapidly to Gujarāt, with the thought that he would get help from the army of that province. The Khān-Khānān considered his coming an honour, and gave him a warm welcome. He quickly collected a choice force, and joined him. But on account of the talk of evil men, they took a perverse course. They sent Mīr Abū Turāb to interview the Deccanis and to arrange for a peace, and then every one returned to his fief. The enemy was delighted at this result and sent presents (peshkash). Mīrzā Koka marched out from Māndū and attacked Ḥamīr 491 Jetpūrī and inflicted suitable punishment on him. He is one of the Mālwa Zamīndārs. When the army went off to Berar, he, finding the country unprotected, fell upon Mandū and ravaged several places. Some parts he set on fire. They say that one of the supporters of that land-holder asked encouragement from an enthusiast.* The latter got angry and said, “Who dares to stretch out the hand of oppression on the territory of the spiritual and temporal monarch (Akbar),” and slew him with his dagger.

One of the occurrences was the sending of Rāja Bhagwant Dās to Zābulistān (Afghānistān). When Kunwar Mān Singh was sent to punish the Yūsufza'ī, the Rāja, who was commanding in the Panjāb, was appointed to that service (Afghānistān). On account* of his evil star, he propounded certain improper desires, and the sovereign, surmising madness, restrained him from going. An order was issued to experienced men to prepare Sulṭān Daniel for this service. Shāh Qulī K. Maḥram, Ismā'īl Qulī and many other officers were appointed to accompany him. Thereupon Rāja Bhagwant Dās repented a thousand times of what he had said, and apologised and begged for forgiveness. H.M. accepted his apologies and on the 23rd he was allowed to go with many other prudent servants.*