In a short time they swept the plain. Whoever was refractory was punished, and whoever submitted had his honour and property preserved and the troops went off elsewhere (?). The victorious army then addressed itself to the conquest of Banīr (Buner) and proceeded by the ravines. When they had passed through some defiles they came to Dūk.* Here the Afghans proceeded to offer battle, and there was a hot engagement. A large number were made prisoners, and many also were killed. Sher Khwāja and others displayed much valour. As it was evening, and the road was not clear, they turned back and came to the staging-place. When they learned that there was no road that way (the one by which they were advancing when they were attacked by the Afghans), they returned to the plain in order to march by another route.

At this time Ḥakīm Abul Fatḥ was sent off to Swād with a force. Zain K. Kokaltāsh had represented that by God's favour he had crossed through difficult defiles, and had got possession of Bajaur, and of the most of Swād, but that the troops had been harassed by the continual forced marches (takādū). The Afghans were assembled in the Karākar (?) pass between Swād and Bunēr. If some brave men were sent to him, the enemy would soon have his deserts, and the whole country would come into possession in an excellent manner. Accordingly on the 19th, asan Beg, S. 'Umrī, Aḥmad Qāsim, ūfān Beg, Mullā Ghiyūrī, Mohan Dās, were sent along with Cerūs* and shamshērbāzān* (swordsmen) under the com­mand of the Ḥakīm. He ordered that if the soldiers previously* sent were in the plains they should quickly join the Kokaltāsh, and hasten by the Malakand* pass, which was the nearest way. At the end of the day H.M. visited the Ḥakīm's tents, and gave him excellent counsels.

In a short time the forces gathered together and hastened on 479 by the prescribed route. Also at this time news came that the ambassador of 'Abdullah K. the ruler of Tūrān, and Naar Bé, who had long held Balkh in fief, had nearly arrived with a large caravan. On account of the Tārīkīs they had trouble in coming through the Khaibar, and so Mubārak Nohānī, Ghāzī K. and other brave men were dispatched under the command of S. Farīd Bakhshī Begī to conduct the visitors.

One* of the occurrences was the pacification of Bengal. When the idea of the expedition to the Panjab occurred to H.M., the news came that Wazīr K. was unable to carry out the duties there alone, and that the rebels of that quarter were bestirring themselves. Accordingly Shahbāz K.'s younger brother was sent to bid him go from Behar to that country. When H.M. arrived at the bank of the Bihat, it was represented to him that Shahbāz K. was possessed by a great desire to come to Court, and that he was on his way thither. H.M. sent off sezāwals to turn him back nolens volens, and to send him on the above service. They met him near Jaunpūr and withheld him from carrying out his wish. On 20 Bahman he sat down to guard Bengal, and won hearts by soothing words and by the open hand. In a short time the Afghans had recourse to supplication, and the dust of dissension was laid, and the weak com­forted. He sent off troops to Bhātī to punish 'Isā K. Owing to the wondrous fortune of H.M., 'Īsā had not the courage to fight, and the territory which Ṣādiq had surrendered according to the peace, came into possession. The conquests extended up to the port of Chitta­gong, and things were satisfactorily arranged. 'Īsā sent rare presents, and used conciliatory language. He represented that as Ma'ṣūm had, from ill-fatedness taken the path of ingratitude, he (Ma'ṣūm, apparently) trembled for himself, and wished to do good service at a distance (ghaibānī, i.e. without waiting on Akbar, or Shahbāz). He was now sending his son to Court. The answer was given that it would be good if he (Ma'ṣūm) would go to the Ḥijaz, and come from there to Court. Many Afghans also abandoned Qutlū. He too used cajoleries, and Shahbāz, in his simplicity, accepted these, and gave him back Orissa.

Also, at this time a force was sent to the country of Kokra.* This is a tract between Orissa and the Deccan. Mādhū Singh the zamindar there was behaving presumptuously, in reliance on the difficulty of crossing an intervening mountain. The imperialists has­tened thither and proceeded to plunder. Much booty was obtained. He had the good fortune to offer tribute, and to obtain repose under the shadow of unequalled dominion.

Also the Magh ruler—which is near Pegu—sent large presents, including elephants, and made propositions of concord. This was one of the marvels of good fortune, for there was no great officer 480 except Wazīr K. Neither was there a fleet, which is the chief means of making war in that country, whereas the enemy had a large supply of war-boats.

One of the occurrences was the coming to Court of Yūsuf K. the ruler of Kashmīr. When the army marched to conquer Kash­mīr, the idea of the leaders was that they would go by Bhimbar, as large armies could march by that route with ease and celerity, and also as some of the landholders there used amicable language. The idea was that when the roads were cleared of snow, and the winter had come to an end they would advance through the passes. As the retribution of the wicked is a thing that does not endure delay, an order was given that during (the season of) the fall of snow and when the enemy were off their guard, they should pro­ceed by the Paklī* route, where less snow falls. They were obliged to give their minds to this. On this news, Yūsuf K. resolved to give battle, and sent off many experienced men in order that they might construct a fort near the river Nain Sukh* (the delight of the eyes). In every defile they were to establish a strength and to pre­pare for war. The force that was sent had passed Bārahmūla by six kos when the daily-increasing fortune (of Akbar) became con­spicuous. The ruler of Kashmīr erased from his mind the idea of that plan, and he recalled the men he had sent! Under the influ­ence of the talk of short-sighted advisers and of slaves of gold he fell into the heavy slumber of neglect. The difficulty of crossing the passes, the arrival of snow and rain, and the fact of the victo­rious army's belonging to a hot country made him still more som­nolent. Self-indulgence and miserliness stained him with the dust of neglect. When the opportunity had gone out of his hands, he learnt that the strenuous servants had set themselves to conquer the country and had arrived near Paklī. The dust of commotion rose high, and various opinions were brought forward. Whoever casts away far-sightedness, and who in times of prosperity has no thoughts about adversity, shall assuredly arrive at the evil day of the success of the enemy, and the foot of his desires shall strike against the stone of despair. After a little while he in much giddi­ness again thought of fighting. From time to time, topsyturviness of thought made him still more silly. When the troops aided by Providence had traversed heights and hollows and had come near Būlyās,* Yūsuf K. awoke from his presumptuous slumbers, and tried to amend his insubordination. As there was no way of preserv­ing his kingdom except submission and going to do homage, he emerged from the pass of Kuārmast,* under pretext of wishing to examine the (intended) battle-field with a few men, and sent a skilled envoy to lay open his secret intention. The officers had been exceedingly harassed by the severe cold, the dearness of provisions, the difficult roads and the rain and snow. They received the envoy and then sent him back, and Yūsuf came with a few confidants of the army on 4 Isfandārmaẕ (about 14th February 1586). They treated him with respect, and had a conference. They then formed the design of returning.

481 When the news came to court, an order was issued that Yūsuf's coming was approved of, and that he would be welcomed with princely favours, but that the idea of the officers about returning was not right. If Yūsuf were not meditating any fraud and was treading the highway of truth, the right thing was that the army should enter the delightful country (of Kashmīr), and, after having taken it, should make it over again to Yūsuf. The officers, willing or unwilling, had to advance. The Kashmīr leaders in their perverted fashion, and from somnolence of intellect, appointed usain K. Chak as their head, near Kuārmast, and set about fortifying the defile. Just then Ya'qūb, s. Yūsuf, joined them, and they left their new chief, and clove to him. There was daily fighting in the Pass. Madhū Singh, Amīn-ud-dīn and others cleared it, and Ḥasan Beg Ahadī and some Rājputs acquired deathless fame by sacrificing their lives. Forty men of distinction among the enemy were killed. The foe was dismayed and scattered.