The sole idea of wise kings is day by day to refresh the garden of the world by the streams of justice, and assuredly this design is accomplished whenever extensive countries come into the hands of one who is just and of wide capacity. And when an empire has been civilized by an enlightened and just ruler, and the people thereof—small as well as great—sit in the shade of tranquillity, it is unavoidable that such a prince should cast a profound glance on the deeds of neighbours who have taken the path of dissimulation. He must look closely in order to perceive if their former conduct can be brought into line with love and order, and if they can be induced to treat their subjects properly. If they do not, then justice requires that they should be punished, and their land taken from them. Especially, if they, after having been treated with various kindnesses, take the path of presumption, and turn away from cher­ishing their people, and sit down in self-indulgence. Accordingly when the envoys returned from Kashmir, and represented the arro­gance and wickedness of the Ruler, H.M., on 9 Dai, 20 December 1585, dispatched M. Shāhrukh Bahādur,* Rajah Bhāgwant Dās, Shāh Quli Maḥram, Mādhū Singh, Mubārak K. and many Aḥadīs, under the charge of M. Ālī Akbarshahī, Shaikh Y'aqūb Kashmīrī, Ḥaidar Cak and other strenuous and brave men. Amīnu-d dīn* was made bakhshī. Also on this day, Zain K. Koka was sent off to guide aright the Yūsufzais, and to conquer Swād (Swāt) and Bajaur. 475 This large tribe formerly lived in Qandahar and Qarābāgh. From there they came to (the district of) Kabul, and became powerful. M. Ulugh Beg Kābulī massacred* them by a stratagem. Those who remained took refuge in the Lamghānat. Afterwards they settled at Hashtnagar.* It is nearly one hundred years since they settled in Swād and Bajaur, and lived there in the practice of robbery and turbulence. In this land there was a tribe that had the title of Sultānī, and claimed to be descended from a daughter of Sultan Sikandar.* The Yūsufzais for some time zealously served them, and then became ungrateful, and took possession of the choice lands. Up to the present day some of the former inhabitants spend their days in distress in the defiles, and from love for their native land are unable to leave.

During the Kabul commotion the heads of the Yūsufzai sub­mitted and had recourse to fawning. They expressed shame for their former wickedness and made promises of service. One of them, Kālū by name, was treated very graciously. In a short time how­ever, they returned to their former ways, and applied themselves to robbery and oppression. Kālū himself fled from Court. Khwāja Shamsu-d-din caught him near Attock and sent him back. The gracious sovereign treated him kindly. Inasmuch as kindness is of no benefit to an evil nature, he again absconded, and took refuge in his former dwelling, and led astray other landholders. H.M. dis­patched Ḥasan K. Patni, Rajah Mukat Man, Jānish Bahādur, Aska­ran Pancānan, Hīra Pradhān, Rām Cand, S. Kabīr, Faulād and others,* under the command of the Kokaltāsh. 'Arab Khānjahāni was made bakhshī. The whole idea was that the crooked tribe might be guided aright, and that the black-hearted ones who did not accept counsel should be punished. Farīdun K. was made over to the author.

Also, during this year* Ism'aīl Qulī K. was sent off to Balūcistān. When the news came that this people had gone the way of disobedience, and did not perform service, he was nominated for this important task. Rai Rai Singh, Abu-l-Qāsim Tumkīn (Nama­kīn) and many other brave men accompanied him. Ḥāshim was appointed bakhshī. Also, on this day Kuar Mān Singh was sent off to 476 Kabul, in order that he might civilize that country by justice. Sai­yid Ḥāmid Bokhārī, Bakhtiyār Beg, Muḥ Quli Beg, Ḥamza Beg and many men of note accompanied him. An order was given to him that when he came near the Khaibar he should halt for some days and chastise the Tārīkīs, and make the road safe, so that pedes­trians (pawindagān) might feel at ease. The sovereign arrived at Atak-Benares on 12 Dai, 23 December, after travelling 305 kos and a little more in 4 months and 1 day and in sixty-five marches. At dawn of the following day he reached the quarters of Zaīn K. Koka and Kuar Mān Singh, who were in the neighbourhood, and renewed his valuable counsels. On the 15th he sent Farīdūn K. to the Ḥijāz as, mayhap, the stain of his misconduct might be washed out there, and he might gather the materials of bliss. He embarked on the Bihat in a boat and was taken to Bhakkar. From there Ṣādiq K. sent him off by river, and had him conveyed to that place of pilgrim­age. Though the farsighted among the courtiers represented that if he did not relieve such a rebel from the burden of existence, he should put him in prison and read him a lesson there, H.M. adhered to the tenour of his summons and did not listen to this sug­gestion.

Ḥājī Siyandak, Aḥmad Beg and others kept an eye on those who had gone first. When they learnt how kindly they had been received, they left Kabul for the holy threshold, and on the 20th had the bliss of a reception, and were treated with princely favours.

One of the occurrences was the sending of soldiers to attack the Yūsufzai. The homes of this rebellious crew are in the hill-country of Swād (Swāt) and Bajaur. Many of them live in the plains. The Indus surrounds them on two sides. On the two other sides they have the Kābul river, and the northern hill-country. The length of their territory is 30 kos, and its breadth 15-20. There are delightful valleys and beautiful tracts.

As the Kokaltāsh went on to Bajaur without paying any atten­tion to the plains, H.M. dispatched on the 25th (Dai) Qarā Beg, Ẓīā-al-mulk and some others under the command of S. Farīd bakh­shī. Tḥey made a good attack and then returned. They reported that there was a great deal of work to be done in the plain, and that another army should be appointed in order to root out the thorn of rebellion. After that it should enter the hills from another side and join the Kokaltāsh. Accordingly, on 4 Bahman S'aīd* K., S. Faiẓī, the poet laureate, Sher Khwāja, 'Alī Muḥ, Alif, Qāẓī 'Alī, Ṣāliḥ diwāna, Fatḥ Ullah Sharbatdār, Ayūb Beg, Y'aqūb Beg, 'Abdu-r-Raḥmān Beg2* , S. Abu-l-Barkāt* and others, together with 300 horse belonging to the author, were sent off.

At the first stage, to which this humble one had gone to take leave of his brothers, H.M., from his favour to the humble, cast the shadow of his graciousness upon him, and exalted him by various kindnesses. A qūrkhāṣa* (special collection of ensigns) was assigned to the force, in order that by doing homage (kornish) thereto, it might be fortunate. The troops were to march behind this. The rendezvous was at Nardān.*

On the 7th (Bahman) Mīr Sharīf Āmulī* was sent to Zābulistān as amīn and ṣadr of that province (Kabul). On the same day Qāsim Beg Tabrīzī was raised to the post of Mīr 'Adlī (Judge-advocate) of the camp. H.M. said, “Always implore God, and seek to do His will, and unite recognition (of God) with prayer, and keep free from cupidity and cowardice, which cause the wise to waver, for many pure souls are turned from the recognition of the truth by the deceitfulness of the world, and the prosperity of oppressors. Nor should you in the administration of justice (dāwarī) decide matters by witnesses* and oaths, but should make inquiry with profound dis­crimination, and study the lines of the forehead. If difficult ques­tions be too hard for you, report them to me. Regard self-indul­gence as wrong, and attend to duty, in season and out of season.”

One of the occurrences was the sending of Rajah Bīrbar to Swād. When it became known that if the work were left to those first sent, it would take long to finish as there were many recalci­trants, and it was difficult to get through the mountain defiles, it was resolved that another army should be sent under the charge of an experienced servant. Inasmuch as the head of this confused and ambitious one (himself) was filled with thoughts of battle, he repre­sented to H.M. that although his serving in his presence was the elixir of fortune, yet he wished to make trial of foreign service— which was the testing place of loyalty. I too, who had been raised by H.M. from the lane of contempt to a conspicuous post in the world, wished to lighten my shoulder somewhat. I was strength­ened in this desire by thinking that I might be able to do good service, and also shut the mouths of those envious persons which were gates of impropriety. Should I lose my brief life, I would acquire an eternal good name. H.M. perceived in my demeanour the marks of sincerity, and accepted my prayer. This gave me new vigour. He said that he would send with me some experienced soldiers, whose opinions I should follow in the matters of camping and engaging. At the end of the day when it was the time for taking leave, H.M. said it had occurred to him that lots should be 478 cast between me and Rajah Bīrbar, so that without reference to either's wishes the Divine decree might be elicited. Inasmuch* as there were divers wishes the big throw failed, and all at once the little throw came out in his name. Both of us entered upon a prolonged sorrow. As there was no help for it, I left the broken thorn of grief in my heart, and seated myself in the caravanseray of meditation. That man who was fitted for battle or for banquet (babazm u razm) went off by heaven's decree on 12 Bahman, 21 January 1586. Qāsim Khwāja, Gadā Beg, Ḥājī Siyandūk, Aḥmad Beg, Tāsh Beg, Khwāja Hisāmu-d-dīn and other distinguished persons went with him. Next morning at dawn, H.M. on returning from hunting visited the Rajah's camp and exalted him by various favours.