At this time of joy when the nuptial banquet was full of delights, the variegated spring illuminated the countenance of the age. The garden of dominion acquired new freshness.


'Tis the glorious feast of Farwardīn,
The market-day of the rose and the nasrīn (wild-rose).
What lacks the world for the nuptials?
The soul is light and the dower is heavy.

After the lapse of six hours and fifty-seven minutes the light-increaser of the nine heavens cast his rays on the mansion of Aries on the night of Thursday, 19 Rabī'-al-awwal 993, 10 or 11 March 1585. Piety was made brilliant by the embroidery of joy, and there was a new palace of liberality. At the beginning of this august feast the officers of Berār were exalted by doing homage, and obtained princely favours. Berār is one of the southern countries. 456 An account of it has been given in the final volume (the Āīn). It was in the possession of Martaẓā Naāmu-l-Mulk. From lust* and bad companionship he departed from his proper work, and applied himself to the holy service of the spirits. This is a fearful task, and one hardly to be executed by the emancipated ones of purity under the guidance of those who have made the journey. How then can it be accomplished by those whose feet are caught in the skirts of wickedness? In a short time the shining jewel of wisdom fell into the dark ravine of madness, and realm and religion were endamaged. He became disgusted with external things and confined himself to communications by writing. Mercenary men took advantage of him and made him an ensample of madness. Ṣalābat K. Carkas (Circas­sian) obtained sway over his insane disposition, and ruled the kingdom. He set about ruining the fief-holders of Berār. Mīr Martaẓa* Sabzawārī, who was the head of that body of men, together with Khudāwand* K. Mashhadī, Jamshed K. Shīrāzī, Canda K. Deccanī, Sher K. Nohānī and others, collected troops and hastened to Aḥmadnagar. He (Ṣalābat), under the leadership of Niāmu-l-Mulk's son, did battle with them. Many fell on both sides, but at last the Berārīāns were defeated, and Jamshed K. was made prisoner. They lost much property, and had no more the power to remain in the country and so turned the face of entreaty to this eternal dominion (Akbar's). The officers of the borders kept them back and represented the case to the august court. An order was issued to the effect that “our court is open to mankind, whoever is helpless and takes refuge there will obtain his desires.” At this auspicious time they arrived, and brightened the blackness of their fate. They received various favours, and obtained high office and fertile jagīrs. Every day there was a fresh feast, and the records of the Age were filled with eulogy. One of the great officers begged that the daily* increasing fortune would deign to adorn the feast. The sovereign, the granter of desires,—who is the joy-giver of the spiritual spring, —filled the place with light by his advent.


The Shāh sits on the throne and indulges in pleasantry,
His heart seeks wisdom, and listens to cleverness.

On the day of Farwardīn (19th Farwardīn) the world's lord celebrated the feast of the sun's exaltation (sharf), and implored blessings from the incomparable God.


May his name abide for ever.
May his glory be always like Jupiter (?).
From him I got a good name in the world.
May there be a good fulfilment to him from the world.

During this great festival good servants were exalted by the increase of their rank. Shīhābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K. obtained the government of Mālwa. Rajah Bhagwant Dās was made a Panjhazārī 457 (5000), Rajah Todar Mal a Cārhazārī (4000), Zain K. Koka and Mīr Yūsuf K. 2500, 'Abdul Maālib K. 1500, Rajah Askaran 1000, Ḥakīm Abu l-fatḥ 800, S. Farīd 700, Mīr Jamālu-d-dīn 600, Burhān-al-mulk 500. The writer of the noble volume was, without his having given any proof of service, exalted to the rank of a Hazārī (1000). I hope that good service will show itself and vindicate the discernment of the world's lord! All the commanders were distinguished by great favours. Also at this time Amīr Fatḥ Ullah Shīrāzī was made Āmīn-al-Mulk, and an order was issued that Rajah Todar Mal should conduct the financial and administrative officers of the empire according to the Mīr's counsels, and that he (the Mīr) should bring to a conclusion the old transactions which had not been examined since the days of Moaffar K. He was to report to H.M. what occurred to his far-reaching intellect. The Mīr addressed himself to this important duty with an open mind, and in order to facilitate his proceedings, he submitted certain propositions (faṣle), and made the exquisite replies thereto his guide. For the sake of information I have given them textually.

Firstly.—The accountants have not rendered clear statements, and have not observed the sacred regulations. They have based this business—which rests upon inquiry and investigation—on conjecture and approximations. In the year when the whole empire became crown-land (khālṣa), the officers, on account of excessive work, could not go to the bottom* of the business and wrote down large sums as arrears. They decided the matter upon the fifth* or sixth share of the produce. The cunning got the joy of their hearts, while the honest fell into soul-exhausting trouble. Those who had gone a little astray were kept back from paying by the enormity of the demand. If accounting were done according to knowledge, the former incon­veniences would cease. Secondly.—It was a regulation that the collectors of revenue should give receipts (yāfta) to the ryots and that they should make a list, and that the clerks should base their accounts thereon. Now, that arrangement (serishta) has been given up (lit. has gone from the hand), and whatever the khālṣa-collectors write in the names of the cultivators, and which they make the cloak of their embezzlements, is accepted. It is right that in future the two documents* above named should be used. Thirdly.—The accounts are made up according to a perfect year (sāl* -i-kāmal) or according to krorbandī* papers which have been written by hasty and inconsiderate persons. In consequence of this many have been imprisoned. The just course would be to base the demand, simply and honestly, on a series of years (paiwasta* sāl). Fourthly.—Owing to the som­nolence of the collectors, the agents (gomāstagān) have been power­ful and have robbed* the cultivator.

The Patwārī rejects from his accounts (qarār wāq'a) private* documents and vouchers—commonly known as “crude papers” (kāghaz* -i-khām). The proper course is that whatever appears in them should be entered in his name and he should be responsible for the contents. If he (the patwārī, or perhaps the collector) does not produce what his agents have taken, he should be obliged to refund it. Otherwise the oppressor will escape from his obligations. Whatever stands in the names of extortionate persons, such as qānūngoes,* maqaddams* and pākārs,* should be accounted for by 458 such individuals. Fifthly.—Any over-plus which in this way is brought to light should be credited to the arrears due by the ryot, name by name, or should be carried to account in the next year, and there should be no second demand for it, nor should it be again demanded from the collector. And as the computers of the current revenue (siyāq navīsān-i-ḥāl) demand village expenses (malba)* which in clerical phraseology are termed istiṣwābī* and akhrājāt, this also should be deducted from the demand. Sixthly.—The fluctuations of cultivation are apparent to every one. If in a village some land fall out of cultivation, one endeavours to increase cultivation else­where. Similarly, if a crop be lost or damaged, compensation for this should be sought elsewhere. The accountants* (ahl-sīyāq) look only to the diminution and tighten* the load of the demand. If they would look to the total assessment, the ryots would be relieved. Seventhly.—The mastaufi (auditor) holds in deposit one-fourth of the collectors (salary) for the purpose of clearing off arrears. If the arrears result from desertion or contumacy of tenants, and the efforts of the collector are without avail, or if they are the result of his having been untimely removed,* they are not due to his fault. If there have been remissness in making demands that reason* should be entered on the arrears, on condition that the arrear appear in the revenue-roll.* Eighthly.—Some persons are occasionally appointed to assist* the collector, and their pay is allowed to them for a fixed time. Sometimes, they remain longer and draw their pay for that time, but no such allowance is made to the collector. If their being kept on be necessary, he should be allowed the expense thereof, and the circumstance be reported.