At this season, when the Age was in the flash of joy, and mortals were embracing delight, happy-footed couriers came from the province of Gujarat and conveyed the tidings of fresh victories. They raised a high tent for thanksgivings to God, and the tongue of the ruler* of the world uttered marriage-blessings. A wise man, who makes the increase of glory the adornment of supplication to God, and whose prudence increases from time to time in this season of the slipping of the foot of discretion, will assuredly be assisted by the celestial superintendents of affairs. The fortune of the Shāhinshāh tells of this, and this noble volume rehearses somewhat of it.

It has been mentioned that base and wicked men made the worthless Moaffar an instrument of turbulence, and now, in spite of abundance of men and money, he, time after time, failed and was struck with shame. It was now time that the hare-brained one should awake from his careless slumbers, but as selfishness deprived him of vision, and he considered what was his loss to be his gain, and as fortune had given him some worldly goods and had raised him up in order that he might become intoxicated and fall into the pit of disgrace, he foolishly imagined that these things were the materials of greatness. Many wished-for things come together also in the houses of tradesmen, but they are not the materials of power and grandeur. That is a ray from the Divine halo, and it comes not into the hands by striving.


In the garden, the gourd lifts its head beside the cypress.
Such exaltation is but brief.
Between the cypress and the gourd the heavens know
Which head is worthy of sublimity.

Many laudable qualities must unite in a son of man before he be fit for the diadem of ruler and be a suitable throne-occupant. I with my stammering tongue cannot enumerate them. But some­thing may be said, and a sketch may be made. 1st, He must have sublime intelligence in order that he may understand the degrees of noble deeds, and may bring forth the Truth. 2nd, At the time of administering justice he must make no difference between relatives and strangers, between friends and foes, so that the oppressed who have neither force nor gold, may obtain redress, and that evildoers and oppressors may sit in the byelane of failure. 3rd, He must have God-given courage in order that the might of tyrants may not withhold him from doing justice, and that he may not be agitated in time of commotion. 4th, Laboriousness. In ruling the world he must not separate the night from the day, and not prefer ease to toil. 5th, Magnanimity. Silver and gold must have no weight in his heart's antechamber, and he must by liberality and largesse subdue to himself a mercenary world. 6th, A wide tolerance, so that he endure the disagreeables of fortune with an open brow, and he not led by failure into the narrownesses of grief. 7th, Differences in religion must not withhold him from his duty of watching, and all classes of men must have repose, so 453 that the shadow of God may confer glory. 8th, Increasing Love. He must be grieved by men's distresses, and endeavour by kind­ness to remove them, so that the refractory and crooked in their ways may bind the burden of obedience upon their shoulders, and that the dust of doubleness may be swept from the pleasant hall of his dominions. 9th, He must bring choice deliberation to bear upon his work and do well what is proper for the time, so that the thornbrake of evil may be rooted out, and the troubled house of the world have repose. 10th, Little passion. He must cast away unfitting desires, and not depart from wisdom, so that wrath may not prevail, and daily-increasing Fortune may show her countenance. 11th, He must take opinions, and not rely on his own knowledge and perception. He must inquire of the able. He must not disclose his secrets to every one, and let him not incur* the reprobation of the acute and right thinking, so that loss of Fortune may not accrue to him, but happiness be always conspicuous. 12th, Hatred of sequacity (taqlīd). Let the love of inquiry always precede his actions, and the cult of proof be his method, so that he may not be moved from his course by perceiving the view of a multitude, and may not by altercation be made impatient of research.

In fine, as Moaffar had no part or lot in these qualities, and abundance of desires had made him silly, he did not turn his rein, though his brainless head had twice struck against the stone of ruin, but increased in turbulence. He opened out the collections of treasure, and made a great show. Fly-like slaves of gold gathered round him and he went to the town of Gondal* fifteen kos from Jūna­garh and stirred up strife. He made friendship with Amīn K.* Ghorī and the Jām. The landowners took money on pretences, and were always meditating some other purpose. That wicked man (Moaffar) had seated himself in the ambush of opportunity. When the vic­torious troops returned, and the receipts* of the fief-holders became less on account of the disturbances, and there was some dis­organization, the turbulent fellow saw that his time had come and stirred up the dust of dissension. The Khān-khānān left Qulīj K. along with some able servants in charge of Aḥmadābād, and appointed two armies, each to go in a different direction. Medinī Rai, Beg Muḥammad Toqbāī, Saiyid Lād, Saiyid Bahādur, Kāmrān Beg, Rām Cand, Udai Singh, Khwājam Bardi, and others were left in the village of Hadāla* seven kos from Dandūqa-Mīyān* Bahādur; Maḥmūd Sabzawārī, S. Muḥammad Haravī, Mīr Muḥibb Ullah, Mīr Sharafu-d-dīn, Bunyād Beg, Bhūpati Rai, were left in Parāntī,* eight kos from the city; and Saiyid Qāsim and the Saiyids of Bārha were left in Pattan. He himself set off on 12 Āẕar, 22 November, 1584, in company with Naurang K., Khwāja Niāmu-d-dīn Aḥmad and other brave men to chastise Moaffar. He was in Morbī, and was waiting for the landholders (lit. was keeping his eye on the road 454 of the zamindārs). He was sending evil men in every direction to collect funds, and he caused Rādhanpūr* to be plundered.

At this time Moaffar became distracted by the news of the approach of the imperial army. He went off to Kharārī* (?) and Rājūt* Kot, which is a large city in Kāthīwār. The Khān-khānān left his camp behind him and went on rapidly. From Bīramgāon* to Kharārī there was no cultivation for sixty kos, and the warriors had to carry their provisions with them. Moaffar was unable to make a stand anywhere, and went off to the mountains of Barda.* These are high mountains near the ocean. They are thirty kos long and ten broad, are well-watered, and produce abundance of wild fruits. Dwārka* lies twenty kos to the north of them. The imperial­ists established themselves in that country. On perceiving this, the landholders came forward in a supplicating manner. They represented that the ill-fated one had come there of his own accord, that they were not in league with him, and that they were loyal. Amīn K. Ghorī agreed that he would send his own son to serve. Mīr Abū Turāb went and brought the son, and the nursling of his (Amīn Ghori's) wishes was fostered. The agents of the Jām represented that Moaffar was behaving presumptuously forty kos away, and that if some active men were appointed, he would assuredly be captured. The Khān-khānān set out rapidly in pursuit of him, but no trace of him could be found. It was stated that he had gone from that quarter to the hill-country of Bardā. The Khān-khānān divided the army into four* bands. One was put under Naurang K., another under Niāmu-d dīn Aḥmad, another was under Daulat K. Lodī. Each band entered a corner of the country. The Rājputs there fought stubbornly and played away their lives. That fertile country was plundered, and abundance of booty was obtained. Though no trace could be found of the wretch, yet the fraud* and tricks of the Jām were discovered. It appeared that Moẓaffar had gone to the Jām's country, had left his son with him, and gone off towards Aḥmadābad. The Khān-khānān paid no regard to this move, and addressed himself to the chastisement of the Jām. He too, thinking that the imperial army would be con­fused on hearing of the departure of Moẓaffar, collected daring men and advanced. After proceeding four kos he awoke from the heavy slumber of self-conceit, and came forward with protesta­tions and fawnings. By the intervention of Rai Durgā and Kalyān Rai his wishes were accepted. He sent his son Jaisā, the elephant Sherza, and other presents, and entered into the shelter of good service. The Khān-khānān returned from within ten kos of Nawā­nagar,* which was his (the Jām's) residence, and hastened to Aḥmadā- 455 bäd. There were rejoicings in Morbī on account of the report of the victory of the imperialists and the flight of the rebel. The latter by the help of the collusion of the landholders came to Aḥmadabād, and a number of wicked mercenaries were collected. The troops which were in Hadāla* united with those in Parānti.* The other fief-holders also prepared for war. The presumptuous one, from apprehension* that the forces would unite and make his position difficult, came near Parāntī. The imperial servants drew up their forces. Madan Cohān, Rām Cand, Udai Singh, Saiyid Lād, Saiyid Bahādur, Saiyid Shah 'Alī, Bhupat Deccanī, Gīsū Dās Rāthor, Bāgha Rāthor, and others of the vanguard per­formed masterpieces of valour. Khwajam Bardī and other brave men of the centre joined in the fighting. Moẓaffar fled, and though many of the victorious troops were wounded, yet the leaders of the enemy, such as Qurbān 'Alī Bihāragī, S. 'Abdullah, Ṣāliḥ Mīānā, Tamtam Ḥusain, and Gadā Beg, were killed. By the daily increasing fortune of the Shāhinshāh a great victory* was gained. Some of the rebels were killed, and some sent into obscurity, the commotion subsided, and the world's lord on receiving the joy­ful news increased his devotion and his justice, and added another good omen* to the glory of the marriage (Selĩm's).