(This chapter begins with about twelve lines of reflections on the evils of flattery, etc. as illustrated by the history of the Badakh­shān Mīrzās. It then proceeds as follows):—

When M. Ḥakīm returned to Kabul from Badakhshān, M. 441 Shahrukh brought himself to the resolution of paying his respects to M. Sulaimān, and of living in harmony. M. Sulaimān, on account of suspicions, and his observation of the conduct of faithless persons, would not agree to this. After much talk, it was arranged that Uzbeg Suḷtān, the ruler of Hiṣār—who kept alive the rules of rela­tionship and friendship—should send a party of men as sureties (bayāwarī) and that the Mīrzās should see one another in the midst of the river Āmūī (the Oxus), at a place* where there are nine chan­nels, and that they should there enter into engagements of concord. It was also arranged that M. Sulaimān should cross four channels, and M. Shāhrukh five. When M. Sulaimān* arrived at the river-bank, he crossed one channel and then got frightened and turned his rein. Makers of difficulties were nearly putting a stumbling-block in M. Shāhrukh's path, but from his good disposition and intentions he crossed eight channels, and after waiting upon M. Sulai­mān expressed his desires for amity. He took his leave after having visited the Mīrzā's (Sulaimān's) quarters. The latter went off to Kūlāb and shortly afterwards he—under pressure from wicked men who regard evil as good and good as evil—enlarged his wishes and raised a disturbance. He sent a message that Mīhr 'Alī, Cūcak and 442 Mīr 'Imād should be delivered up to him, or if M. Shāhrukh could not agree to this, that he should dismiss them from his presence. M. Shāhrukh swallowed the bitter draught, and agreed to the last proposition. They went off to Kabul with the thorns of failure in their feet, and Mīr 'Imād went into retirement. Meanwhile Muḥammad Qulī Shighālī, who was the sword and the intellect of the country, left M.Shāhrukh and joined M. Sulaimān. This increased the bad feeling, and it was not long before Mihr 'Ali returned from Kabul (text Zabūlistān) to M. Shāhrukh. As M. Sulaimān had suffered much opposition* from him formerly he sent a message to say that the surrender of Mihr 'Alī would be a proof of M. Shāh­rukh's submission. The Mīrzā sent him along with Ḥājī Taman,* and M. Sulaimān made the latter his servant, and imprisoned Mihr 'Ali. He also sent S. Bābāī Wālī* —who under the disguise of a medicant's dress, was spinning snares—and represented that at the time of the agreement and the division of the country, Muḥammad Quli, Ḥājī Taman and Mihr 'Alī were of his (Shāhrukh's) party. It was proper now that his share (Sulaimān's) should be increased by Tālīqān and some territory (in order to support the retainers). M. Shāhrukh replied that the rules of humanity and graciousness required that the pleasant abode of unity should not be stained by the dust of the shameless and strife-mongering, and that M. Sulaimān should send back the set which had left him (Shāhrukh). M. Sulaimān did not agree to this and resolved on fighting. Shāhrukh too, from the intoxication of youth, and from not having any wise companion, went off. In Rustāq he halted, and made his petition, and had recourse to entreaties. He begged that no dust of conflict should be raised, and that they should not give their enemies cause to rejoice. M. Sulaiman was nearly coming to terms, but strife-mongers did not allow him to do so, and there was a battle. Inasmuch as the breaking of compacts, and the non-acceptance of apologies are not auspicious, M. Sulaimān was defeated without a severe con­test, and took refuge with the people of Ḥiṣār. M. Shāhrukh did not pursue and applied himself in some measure to the work of administration. He made over Kūlāb to his eldest son Muḥammad Zamān, and made Mihr Alī* his atālīq. He himself came to Qan­dūz. M. Sulaimān took help from Uzbeg Sulān, the ruler of Ḥiār, and proceeded towards Badakhshān. M. Shāhrukh also formed the design of fighting. He sent some active men ahead under the leadership of Qanghar, and gave battle with the assistance of the Kūlābīs. M. Sulaimān was defeated on this occasion also, and returned to Ḥiṣār. At this time the ambassadors of the Shāhinshāh arrived, and M. Shāhrukh's position became very strong. At the time when the august retinue had cast the shadow of justice over Zābulistān (Kabul) and M. Ḥakīm had been disgraced in the battle with the Prince (Murād), adroit and bold ambassadors were sent to M. Shāhrukh, who was agitating the chain of loyalty, to enquire after his health, and to tell him to come and do homage, or to send his mother, the Khānim. The Mīrzā expressed himself in submissive 443 language, and his affairs assumed a brighter aspect. The people of Ḥiṣār withdrew from supporting M. Sulaimān. But M. Shāhrukh did not, on account of the wickedness of his advisers, bring himself to wait upon H. M. But he was arranging to send his mother to make excuses when news came that H. M. was returning. Also his mother fell ill at this time. M. Sulaimān, having come to despair of the Ḥiṣārīāns, wished to do the work of an enemy under the guise of a friend, and came with some Uzbegs to Badakhshān. He brought forward proposals of peace. M. Shāhrukh accepted them, and it was agreed that each would pass over channels of the river to the place of the former compact, and that they would have a banquet of friendship, and make fresh treaties. M. Shāhrukh acted as he had said, M. Sulaimān did not cross, and sent a message that M. Shāh­rukh should come over to his side of the river, and remove the dust of doubleness (as apposed to unity). M. Shāhrukh understood his idea and turned his rein. At this time Mīrzā Shāhrukh's mother died, and all at once good counsels ceased. He fell into conceit and self-will. The condition of the army became bad. There was sport and play, and the peasantry fell into distress. M. Sulaimān went off to 'Abdullah K. Uzbeg, the ruler of Tūrān, in hopes that he might gain his ends. He had taken an army to Tāshkend, but his father Sikandar K.* received M. Sulaimān, and welcomed him with kind­ness. 'Abdullah K. on hearing this news had other thoughts and wrote that Sulaimān should be kept under surveillance until his arrival. The Mīrzā understood the matter and on a dark night took the road to Ḥīār. Some active men went with him, and by dint of courage he got away from that dangerous place. When 'Abdullah K. returned, he sent Qul Bābā,* his vakīl and general, to Uzbeg Sulān with the request that he would deliver up the Mīrzā. He observed the rights of kindness and sent off the Mīrzā to Badakh­shān before Qul Bābā arrived. Sulaimān came, after failure, to Kūlāb via Qarātagīn. M. Shāhrukh came forward with submissive language and proposed to divide the country according to the for­mer arrangement. M. Sulaimān had the dexterity (pakhtakārī) to refuse, and accepted Kishm as a fief. M. Shāhrukh, owing to the wine of conceit and a love of praise, only paid attention to the words, and did not try to read the lines of the forehead, nor did he distinguish friend from foe. In a short time the word-sellers had a daily market, and the right-thinking had to sit in a corner. Mīr 'Imād, Mīr Kalān, and Cūcak Beg took charge of the adminis­tration, and the office of Bakhshī (army payments) fell again to Yār Beg. Avarice and envy made these men foolish, and they were continually squabbling with one another. On account of the neglect of the lord of the country (or perhaps of the village-headmen) the avarice of his ministers, and the ignorance of his servants, there was great confusion in men's fiefs, and there was a brisk market for the sale* of villages, and the rank of folly became great. Kūlāb 444 was given anew to Qādir Qulī Koka, Qundūz to Qūrcī Beg, Tālqān to 'Abdu-r-Raḥmān, Ghori to Mīr Niam, Kahmard to Khanjar 'Ali, Andarāb to Lafī Koka, Rustāq to Mast 'Alī and Baqlān to Sherbal. At such an inauspicious time 'Abdullah K. saw his opportunity and came to Badakhshān, and conquered that strong country without a battle. He always had had an eye on the Mīrzās of Badakhshān, and when he learnt that they had not gone to the Shāhinshāh, and that they were quarrelling with one another, and neglecting the adminis­tration, he had recourse to violence. He sent a message that they should make over to him Ghorī and Kahmard, and should send the Aimāqs of Turān—who for a long time had lived in that country (Badakhshān)—to him. M. Shāhrukh made no reply, nor did he become more active. An idle report had been spread that the ruler of Tūrān was dead and that Qul Bābā was preferring these requests. M. Shāhrukh remained on this account in the profound slumber of indifference. In this state of affairs, while the hearts of the Mīrzās were bad, the forts unsupplied, the soldiers distressed, friends in obscurity, and enemies in the enjoyment of success, the active foe arrived. The Mīrzās fled to the defiles. Qūrcī Beg joined the enemy, and Qundūz, which is the pillar of the country, was lost without a battle. Similarly Sherbal and some other Badakhshān officers took the road of disloyalty, while many remained with their families, and restrained their people from service. The Kūlābīāns attached themselves to Muḥammad Zamān and stood firm. Who­ever spends his time in sloth and in looking after his own comfort, and defers the good treatment of men to the day of calamity, will be left alone in the world of social life, and shall not receive help. The knitting together of hearts is produced by abundant attention in the time of prosperity. Those who are infatuated with the world do not open the door of warmth of affection until they have fallen into difficulty. Till then they keep the shops of gentleness closed! When the Mīrzās had brought things to such a pass, every one to whom they applied turned away. Being helpless they abandoned the defiles of Badakhshān and came to Bahārak,* which is a rugged place and difficult of access. They thought their old servants would be eager to help them, but most of them did not come forward. On account of the excessive ice and snow, and the turning away of old friends, they could not remain there, and came to Panjshir,* which is a dependency of Kabul. Their idea was that if M. Ḥakīm helped them, they would try to recover their home. Otherwise they would seek protection at the court of the Shāhinshāh. From the time that M. Sulaimān had been exalted by doing homage at the holy threshold, and had sold the desire of conquering Badakhshān for a pilgrimage to the Hijāz, he had felt ashamed, and would not turn his face to the august court. M. Shāhrukh's wish was that he might unite himself to eternal dominion, and as in the time of his pros- 445 perity he had not behaved well to the Kābulīs, he wished to go to India by the hill-route and without seeing M. Ḥakīm. M. Ḥakīm sent for M. Sulaīman, and after treating him with respect sent him to the Lamghānāt, and assigned some villages to him there. Shāh Muḥammad M., the son* of Shahrukh, was with M. Sulaimān. M. Shāhrukh was arrested and made over to Shādmān Hazāra. He was to keep count of him (awāra sāzad) and not let him go to India. The Mīrzā with his three sons, the twins Ḥasan and Ḥusain, and Badī-z-zamān, their mother, and some servants, in all about thirty persons, remained in those hilly defiles of the Hazārjāt with a thousand* inconveniences and disgusts, and thought every day would be his last. By the wonders of destiny a report arose that Ābdullah K. had been defeated, and that the Kūlābians had been successful against him. The Hazāra (Shādmān), who had had other thoughts, took the road of hope and sent off the Mīrzā towards Badakhshān. Fearing lest that savage should change his mind, he, after marching some distance, went off to a pathless place, and after fighting his way through ravines rested in Kahmard. The rural population there gathered round him, and in a short time it appeared that the above report (of 'Abdullah's death) was not true, and that the Kūlābīañs were shut up in the defiles. The Mīrzā went off to attack Tālqañ.* Meanwhile news came that Kūlāb had been taken and that an army had been sent to drive* forward the Aimāqs. His companions scattered and his condition became worse than before. He could not remain where he was, nor could he turn his face to go back. He was nearly falling into the hands of the enemy. With a thousand efforts he proceeded towards Kabul (the country, not the city) and he met M. Sulaimān in Sāl Aulang.* M. Ḥakīm had, on the strength of the same report (of the success of the Kūlābīāns), given him leave to go to Badakhshān. He was now waiting at this station for reinforcements. They now came to recognize one another's quality somewhat, and consulted about remedying* matters. Suddenly some Uzbegs raised the dust of commotion. About this time the birth of a son had caused M. Shāhrukh's countenance to shine. They left it with a country woman and went off in haste. Mihr Ālī, Qādir Bardī, Jahāngīr, Ulugh Beg and others were coming close behind them.* At dawn the Uzbegs arrived and dispersed to plunder the baggage. As fortune would have it, M. Sulaimān's steed* stumbled and he was thrown. M. Shāhrūkh dismounted and tendered his horse. That too ran off. One of the companions got off his horse and gave it and mounted M. Sulaimān, and M. Shāhrukh cleverly caught the runaway. As they were galloping, two roads appeared, and they separated. The enemy went after M. Shāhrukh. A river was in 446 front, and the Mīrzā crossed it and then broke down the bridge. He now breathed safely. His young son Ḥasan got separated during this hurry-scurry (ravārav) and thus Time inflicted a new wound. Just then the news came that M. Sūlaimān was in Alsai* and Najrāo. The Mīrzā joyfully went there and paid his respects. In this time of happiness, Siyūndak K. came from M. Ḥakīm and con­veyed a message of friendship. As they were aware of his evil dis­position, this was a new grief to them. They did not know that he had been rebuked by the sublime court for his conduct, and that he was sorry for what he had done. They did not believe his friendly message, and sent some persons along with the messenger in order to find out what was the upshot of the affair, and ascertain if the promises were valid. At this time a courier of Kuar Mān Singh made them hopeful of royal favours. M. Sulaimān, who was ashamed to go to court, and whose hopes were fixed on M. Ḥakīm, stayed where he was. M. Shahrūkh proceeded to the court. He left the mother of the twins and one son and some old followers (bāb-urīān) near Cārīkārān to search for the child who had been lost. He himself went off by the Dāman-i-Koh to Daka. A large caravan was waiting there and was in a state of alarm on account of the brigands. He chose their companionship. In the caravan were his aunt Khānzāda Khānim and Shāh Muhammad M. (his son). M. Ḥakīm had given them leave to go to India. The Mīrzā (Shāhrukh) by the connivance of Shāī Afghan proceeded by that difficult pass. In every bit they traversed, the narrow parts were closed with stones by the wicked people of the rāvine. In the more difficult places the Tārīkīāns (the Raushānīs) blocked the path. Shāī out of craft sent Qanghar Bāī, Jahāngīr, Khanjar Āli, Yār Beg and Abdāl, each one of whom was the Rustum of the age, to that evil crew on pretence of giving a message, and had them treacher­ously slain. His idea was that night would throw its dark shadow, and then a difficult business would become easy. When a watch of day remained, something of the state of things became known, and they turned back from Āli Masjid. The Tārīkīān were emboldened and came out to fight. The consternation of the traders affected the soldiers and they lost courage. Life and property were plundered. M. Shāhrukh fought bravely. He fell from his horse, but by his efforts and the help of Khadang Beg he mounted again and once more performed masterpieces of bravery. His son Badī'u-zamān* fell from his horse, but by the help of Jān 'Āli got to the station. By dint of fighting he (Shāhrukh) got out of the ravine, and at the end of the night rested in Daka. In the morning he considered what he should do, and saw no protection except in the hills of 447 Badakhshān. At this time he learnt that M. Sulaimān was in the neighbourhood. He got some comfort by seeing him, but was grieved by the death of his newly-born son. The Aimāqs had loyally concealed him and cherished him. On the first occasion, when they (Shāhrukh and Sulaimān) were staying together in the Langhānāt he had sent for him, and had left him in the kind guardianship of M. Sulaimān. “A flower passed away from life, without fruiting.”* M. Ḥakīm had sent M. Sulaimān to the Lamghānāt according to the former arrangement. At this time an army of M. Ḥakīm's arrived, and represented that an order had come from the Shāhinshāh's court to the effect that M. Shāhrukh should be escorted in a suitable manner, and that it had been nominated for this service. Though he was somewhat rejoiced at this good news, yet he did not believe in it much until they turned back after having traversed the Khaibar, and the officers, who were in the neighbourhood of the Indus, came forward with all respect. Kuar Mān Singh* regarded his coming as a great honour, and showed him fitting hospitality. From there he went forward with a tranquil mind and a glad heart. The news of the safety of the son who had been separated from him, also rejoiced him. He had fallen into the hands of an Uzbeg during the scrimmage (dūa dū) and on the occasion of the hurry-scurry (ravārav) the Uzbeg's eyes had fallen upon the baggage. He had left the child and gone hastily after the baggage. A slave was on the watch, and he took up the child and brought it to Sāl Aulang, and made it over to the mother whose heart had long been consumed with sorrow. When M. Shāhrukh crossed the Indus this good news was a happy presage to him. The fief-holders everywhere gave him a warm welcome, and when he came to Lahore, Rajah Bhagwant Dās held a great feast. He also accompanied* him on his journey. Prince Daniel was sent to receive him one stage from Fatḥpūr, and he was accompanied by many grandees. On 23 Dai,* 3 January 1585, he was exalted by doing homage, and there was a daily market of hospitality. As the world's lord reads the roll of the heart from the lines on the forehead, he perceived the characters of nobleness in the Mīrzā, and taking him by the hand of kindness, he showed him favour. The star of his fortune which had sunk rose again. Everyone of the faithful exiles, who had quaffed the bitter cup of adversity, gathered the bliss of prosperity.