Who can reckon up the marvels produced by Existence, and who can understand them? The family* of contingent beings cannot comprehend them. How then can the children of men do so? But the sage can to some extent trace out the matter. It may be that the strong gale of sedition and the stirring up of the dust of dis­sension, even in spite of the truth-seeking, and righteousness of the Ruler of the age, have happened in order that the wondrous work­ing of the world's lord's fortune may be impressed on mankind, and that the misery of the disobedient may be made conspicuous. Or it may be in order that the veil may be withdrawn from the actions of those wicked persons who, from the wide tolerance of H.M. and their own deceit, have taken their place among the good and auspi­cious, and in order that the lamp of perception might be kindled for the infliction of retribution upon them. Or it may be in order that the goodness of those who remain under the veil of obscurity and do not sell their service may be inscribed on the portico of manifestation! For such farseeing designs as these the pleasant land of Gujarat became stained with the dust of uproar. The turmoil of the evil-thoughted took possession of the world. Though the main cause of the sedition was the wickedness of the servants of Shihību-ď-dīn Aḥmad K. and of Qubu-d-dīn K., yet the neglect and unskilfulness of those two great Amīrs led to their ingratitude. They continually behaved with slackness towards the foolish praters. The garden of loyalty became full of dust, and from negligence they did not bestir themselves to gather together the single-minded, nor did they use intelligence in searching for good men. When the govern­ment of that country fell again into the hands of 'I'timād K., those who were slaves* of gold separated and withdrew from going to court, and from the business of the branding. The self-will, and carelessness of 'I'timād K. and the delay in the arrival of assistance increased the evils. The strifemongers on 23 Shahriyūr (about 4th September, 1583) raised up Moaffar and prevailed against Aḥmad­ābād. The ancestors of that low fellow were not known to any one. Men called him Nannū.* In former times 'I'timād K. gave him that name and acknowledged him as the son of Sulān Maḥmūd Gujarātī. He was captured during the first expedition to Gujarat, and for some time was a prisoner in the hands of Karm 'Alī,2* the darogha of the perfumery department. Afterwards he was sent to Mun'im K. Khān-Khānān. When the latter died, he came back to court and Khwājah Shāh Manṣūr the dīwān looked after him. In the 23rd year he escaped, through negligence, and went off to his home (bangāh) and took refuge with the owner of Rājpīplah.* Quṭṭbu-d-dīn K. led an army against him, and he went off to Jūnagarh and took refuge with the Lonīkāthīs.* The officers did not regard him or bring him into notice. At this time, he, by the help of the servants of Shihābu-d-din Aḥmad K, emerged from this corner, and became a trouble. From the time that 'I'timād K. had gone from court, and an order had been issued, summoning Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K., the servants of the latter had indulged in evil thoughts. On the 10th he left Aḥmadabad to proceed to court, and next day 'I'timād K. arrived in the city and sat on the masnad of authority. Mīr Ābid, Khalīl Beg, Mīr Yūsuf Beg, Mīram Beg, and some Badakhshīs and Tūrānīs became actively disloyal and went off to Dūlqa.

They had been plotting to kill their master (Shihāb) before the new governor ('I'timād) had arrived. One who was faithful* to his salt revealed the secret, and by an unfitting clemency the conspiracy was overlooked (lit. the rubbish was covered—khasposh). Now they renewed their evil design, and set out to join Nannū. 'Umr Ḥājī* was the kindler of the disturbance, and was the leader of the wretches. This wicked man had for some time been diwan* of the Ṣadr at Court, and had been equal to Sharfu-d-dīn in evil concep­tions. He acquired some consideration in Gujarat, and when that country was conquered he went to the Deccan. When Shihābu-d-din* Aḥmad K. became governor of the province of Gujarat, he on the strength of former acquaintance joined him. The whole talk of the mercenary men was, “To-day our jagirs* have gone. Until we reach the capital, and expenses for the meantime be supplied and the business of the branding be settled, it will be difficult to get a mouthful of bread. It is far better that we take the turbu­lent Nannū by the hand, and that we stir up strife.” Though well-wishers and experienced persons represented (to I'timād) that Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad had withdrawn from conciliatory measures and was going to court and that the officers of the auxiliary force had not yet arrived, and that it was proper to restrain him from this journey and to give back the jagirs to him for some days, or to spend some money and quiet the uproar of those dog-fleas, or—before the rebels had matured their preparations—to dispose by activity and alertness of this handful of traitors”: none of the suggestions was accepted. 'I'timād K replied: “The servants of Shihābu-u-dīn K. have started the disaffection, he can put it down, or will have to answer for it.” In a little time the number of the rebels increased, and there were loud reports that Nannū was approaching. 411 Of necessity the first opinion was accepted, but as he (Shihāb) had gone some way, he refused. 'I'timād K. thought that he would go in person, and so shorten the time for delivering messages, and that he would by every possible means bring him back. Though acute persons said that to leave the city during this commotion was to make an easy matter difficult, their advice was not approved. He went off at night with Mīr Abū Turāb and Niāmu-d-dīn Aḥmad. They lost their road and only reached Karī* at dawn where they joined Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K. After much talk he agreed to return. His wishes were complied with. His fiefs were restored to him, freed* from burdens, and two lacs of rupees were given him as a loan.* After that most of the day was spent in ratifying the agree­ments and in pledging oaths (i.e. taking oaths of fidelity from the officers and soldiers). Then Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K. set off with his household. At the end of the night Zainu-d-dīn Kambū and Mir M'aṣūm Bhakarī met them, eight kos from Aḥmadabad, and represented that Nannū had joined the rebels, and that he had meditated an attack on Cambay, but that on learning that the city (Aḥmadabad) was undefended he had hastened there, and had pre­vailed* over the city. Pahlwān* 'Alī Sīstānī, the city kotwāl, had lost his life, and the property and hononr of the inhabitants were being plundered. At first there was sorrow and bewilderment, and then they of necessity set themselves to remedy matters. After talk­ing, they resolved on giving battle. On the morning of the 24th* they halted at 'Umānpūr on the banks of the Sabarmatī, and slumbered in the sleep of negligence. Though persons of foresight represented that the rebels were scattered throughout the great city, and occupied in plundering, and that they should draw up their forces and attack them, and so quell the disturbance, the officers adopted the easiest course, and did not set themselves to do this. They thought that the old servants of the governor would join on receiv­ing his conciliatory letters, and that the activity of the rebellion would cease. With this idea I'timād K. and Mīr Abū Turāb went off from the camp to the houses of acquaintances, while Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K. occupied himself in writing soothing letters. The rebels collected and prepared for battle. Shihābu-d-dīn Aḥmad K. awoke somewhat from his slumbers and applied himself to arranging his forces. While he was doing so, Muṣtafa Shirwānī came forward with some wicked wretches. Ḥājī Beg Üzbeg, Payinda Muḥammad Sagkash, Ṣāliḥ Qundūzī, Khiẓr Khwāja,* and a body of known men to the number of about 500 took the road of faithlessness. The engagement had not taken place when a large number of men forded the rīver below 'Umānpūr and fell upon the camp. Many took shelter with the enemy and some remained with their families, and out of an army of more than 7,000 horse, only a few relatives 412 remained around him (Shihāb). During this confusion one of the servants* struck him on his right shoulder with a sword, and his horse was thrown down by a gunshot. He fell to the ground, but some faithful servants raised him up, and gave him a mount. They took him rapidly away from that place of confusion, and, on account of their being busied in plundering, no one pursued him. On the 25th Shihābud-dīn Aḥmad K., I'timād K., Niāmu-d-dīn Aḥmad, and some others, to the number of about 300, assembled in Pattan. Moaffar K. having got his heart's desire in Aḥmadābād took a great name to himself, and became presumptuous and infatuated. He assumed the royal power, and bestowed on the wicked wretches the titles of the Shāhinshāh's officers. 'Ā'bid Badakhshī was made Khān-Khānān; Khalīl Beg, Khān Zamān; Mīrak Yilāq,* Atgah K.; Mīrak Beg, Badakhshī; Khān 'Ālam, Qurbān Alī Bihārī,* Khān Kalān; Shāh Mīrzā, Naurang K.; Nauroz, Qarāca K.; Muḥammad Amīn Badakhshī, Maqṣūṣ K.; Payinda Muḥammad Sagkash.* Khān Jahān; Mīr 'Abdullah, 'Āṣaf K, and Mīr Bakhshī; Ṣāliḥ Badakhshī Moaffar K., and dīwān; Abu-l-wafā became Afẓal K. and mushrif diwān; Shāir Muḥammad, N'aamat K. and Mīr Sāmān. He did not know that unless God's favour be bestowed, and there be choice qualities, the night lamp of greatness does not shine.