At this time, when Time was carrying through work, the star was guiding, the glory of Divine worship was increasing daily, and justice was being augmented, the ear was rejoiced by the sound of the New Year. Joy showed a new face. The exalter of throne and 398 diadem uttered the summons, and gathered together the assemblage of supplication. Active and magician-like men adorned the State-Hall with every thing that was most excellent so as to surprise even the acute and the critical. On Monday, 26 Ṣafr 991, 10 March 1583, the world-lighting sun shed its rays on Aries, and the joy of Spring began, and the fourth year of the third cycle brought the message of eternal life. Mankind sang songs of rejoicing, and there was variety of happiness. Great festivals went on to the day of exaltation (sharaf), and there was a daily market of liberality.


The kingdom longed for such an adornment,
At length fortune fulfilled the kingdom's desire.

It needs an enlightened heart and an eloquent tougue, and leisure, to tell somewhat of these feasts and so to enliven my dis­course. Where have I—the stammering-tongued and much occupied —the power to undertake such a task?


How is it right that in the dawn of Spring
Flies should buzz in presence of the nightingale?

One of the occurrences was the conquest of Bengal for the third time. In the previous year the Khān Ā'im M. Koka had been sent from court in order that he might inflict suitable punishment on the strifemongers of Bihar, and might address himself to the conquest of Bengal. As the rebels of Bihar had received their deserts before the arrival of the victorious army—as has been related—Ṣādiq K. came by relays of horses to court, and as the rainy season was at hand, the enterprise was not accomplished that year. When the tempests and floods of that season had ceased, Shāh Qulī K. Maḥram, ādiq K. S. Ibrāhīm and S. Farīd Bokhārī were dispatched, and strenuous and unabashed sazāwals were appointed to the fief-holders of Ilahābās (Allāhābād), Oudh and Bihar. In a short time a large army was collected in Ḥājīpūr, and energies were devoted to the accomplishment of the task. The Khān Ā'im with many brave and loyal men took the route of Garhī. Tarson K., S. Ibrāhīm, Mīr zāda 'Alī K., Saiyid 'Abdullah K., Ḳīcak Khwāja,* Subḥān Qūlī Turk, and other heroes crossed the river, and addressed themselves to the conquering of that quarter. On account of the jungle, the numerous ravines, and the mire and water, they could not advance by that route. The armies joined one another near Monghyr. Tarson K., Shāh Qūlī K. Maḥram, Muḥibb 'Ālī K., the Mīrzāda 'Alī K., S. Ibrāhīm, and Rai Patr Dās took post a stage or two beyond Colgong. The rebels prepared for battle in the neighbourhood of Kālīgang2(?).* Before this, M. Sharfu d-dīn Ḥusain, Bābā K. Qāqshāl and many other strife-mongers had died, and M'aṣūm K. Kābulī was at the head of the rebels. Qutlū Noḥānī was predominant in Orissa, and he had also taken possession of part of Bengal. When M'aṣūm K. heard the sound of the advancing armies, he first addressed himself to Qutlū, and made a league with him to the effect that when the imperial officers arrived, he should join him with a chosen force. When he had been somewhat heartened by this, he hastened off to Ghorāghāt, and made comradeship with Jabbārī, Mīrzā Beg, and the rest of the Qāq­shals, and in order to inspire them with confidence he left his family in their quarters. Then he came with a number of rebels to Kālī Gang (Kātīgang?) and applied himself to strengthening the place and to preparations for battle.

On 9 Farwardīn the vanguard of the victorious troops took possession of Garhī, which is the gate of that country. On the 16th the officers met in with the rebels and drew up in battle-array. They established batteries on the bank of the Kātīgang,* and the war boats were made ready. As the imperial servants were on the watch for Qutlū, Saiyid 'Abdulla K., Mīrzādā 'Alī K., S. Muḥammad Ghaznavī, Khwāja 'Abdul Ḥai and others together with nearly 4000 horse were sent under the command of Wāzīr K. towards Balkana (?).* They lay in wait twelve kos away from the camp. Every day there was an engagement with guns and arrows, and great deeds were done. On account of the idle talk of men of little heart there was a rift in the enterprisingness of the commanders, and great impor­tance was attached to the numbers of the enemy. A request was therefore sent for help. When Sher Beg tawācī bāshī who had been sent off post-haste, arrived, the world's lord was much aston­ished and said, “Though something tells me that the news of victory will soon arrive, yet there is no harm in caution and in granting their request.” Accordingly, on the 13th Ardībihisht M. Khān, Zain Khān Koka, Ism'aīl Qulī K., Makhṣūs K., Mualib K., Rai Sarjan, S. Jamāl Bakhtiyār, Shiroya K., Khiẓr Beg, Mīr Abū-l-Moaffar, Mir M'aṣūm of Bhakar and many others were sent off to the eastern provinces, and each was presented with a khil'at and a special horse. Before they started the good news of victory arrived, and once more was the mysterious intuition of the world's lord impressed on high and low. To some were eyes, to some collyrium, 400 and to some staffs were given. For nearly a month the armies of fortune confronted the rebels and discharged guns and muskets night and day. On both sides were great deeds performed. And though hopelessness was prevalent, yet the Shāhinshāh's fortune emerged in a wonderful manner. On the 14th the crescent of victory illuminated the world, and the rebels, whose star was extinguished, fled to the desert. Every one of the reckless fools fell into confusion.

The short account of this wondrous stroke of fortune is as follows: In the heat of the contest the Qāẓīzāda, who was one of the ringleaders, came from Fatḥābād* and brought many well-equipped war-boats with him. Suddenly a cannon-ball reached him, and he was killed. M'aṣūm K. appointed in his room Kālā Pahār, who was singular for his skill in river-fighting. He too was soon reduced to annihilation. Also there arose dissension between M'aṣūm K. and the Qāqshāl clan and Khāldīn. Crapulousness laid hold of the drinkers of the wine of presumption, and they became foolish. Able negotiators set themselves to win men over. Many returned to obedience. First Khāldīn came in and made oaths and agreements. Then M. Beg Qāqshāl, Jabbārī, and others secretly took the oath of good service. It was agreed that they should withdraw from fighting and go to their homes, and that after some days they should come to the camp and become good servants. They acted according as they had said. The presumptuous rebels were thrown into great con­fusion, and were compelled to fly with saddened hearts. Though the Khān Ā'im endeavoured to pursue them, he was prevented by the foolish talk of some, and the cowardice of most. The rebels withdrew, and when the news of victory came, thanksgivings were offered to God, and the brave men, who had been sent to assist, turned back.

One of the occurrences was that the Qāqshāl officers joined the imperial servants. When M'aṣūm trod the desert of defeat, he has­tened off to the homes of the Qāqshāls in order that no harm might happen to his family, and also that he might revenge himself upon them. M. Muḥammad Qāqshāl had out of friendship conveyed his family(?)* to a place of safety. The Qāqshāls took up a strong posi­tion near Ghorāghāt and prepared for battle. M'aṣūm K. plundered Ghorāghāt and proceeded to attack the Qāqshāls. The Khān 'Āim sent off Muḥibb 'Alī K., S. Ibrāhīm Fatḥpūrī, Babūi Manklī, Sikandar Cikni (?) and other combatants to the number of about 4000 horse 401 to that place under the command of Tarson K. They arrived when the Qāqshāls were in difficulties, and the rebels fled. The heroes set themselves to pursue them, but turned back in Ghorāghāt. M. Beg, Khaldīn, Wazīr Jamīl and the others adhered to their former promises and made submission. They took upon themselves the task of inflicting retribution upon M'aṣūm K. and separated from the victorious army.