[This chapter begins with a dissertation on the evils of bad companionship and the advantages of a good education. It then proceeds to state that M. Khān was made the prince's tutor (Atālīq].

Though Qubu-d-dīn Khān had been promoted to the office of 394 Atālīq, yet as at this time he had charge of a distant country (Gujarat), M. Khān, son of Bairām K., who possessed far-sighted wisdom and daily-increasing loyalty, was appointed to the post. In thanksgiving for this he gave a great feast, and begged for the presence of H.M. On 27 Shahriyūr the world's lord honoured him with his company, and crowds of men attained their desires.

One of the occurrences was the illness of H. M. and his return to health. Just as those whose foot has slipped in search are brought by an injury into the high way, so does it happen to the prudent walkers in the pleasant lands of holiness. Short-sighted and crooked-minded persons regard such things as a retribution, and the acute and profound perceive that they are in the nature of rue (a protection against the evil eye). On 20 Mihr (beginning of October 1582) H.M. had an internal pain, and a world was seized with dread. When even the wicked and impure became sorrowful 395 what conception can be formed of the grief of the good, and of those who regard things in a business light? Who can conceive the melancholy condition of the true and loyal, and of the devoted followers? The pious sovereign looked to the True Physician, and did not regard the medicine of mortal physicians. He comforted those standing around him by weighty counsels. At length, after much talk, he yielded to the faithful and distressed ones, and took medicine. The Greek and Indian doctors proceeded to use their remedies. Laxatives are of most use in such a case, and Indians do not employ these. May Providence grant that there be no such experience in the case of a distinguished man, and still less of a just king! On one hand was the indifference of H.M. to the tak­ing of medicine, on the other there was the uproar of those self-conceited men. The heart of the writer of the Book of Fortune (A. F.) was stirred up, and he cast away the thread of humility. I represented (to Akbar) in a gentle manner, “I admit that all are true and well-intentioned. What can come of various methods? What is the use of soft speech out of season when the mind is sick? The Persians say that unless aperients are used, there will be blood (dysentery) and an easy matter will become difficult. Choose one who is less bigoted, and who is good and enlightened and experienced, and converse with him.” My remarks were nearly being accepted, and the matter was about to be made over to the Greek treatment. But some of the envious did not permit this, and accordingly blood came. Out of necessity recourse was had to Greek medicine, and the tongues of the envious were closed. On the first day of Ābān (about 10th October) there were signs of recovery, and in a short time the sacred elements (of Akbar) became whole.* For three days he did not touch food, and for 17 days he was benefited by eating with­out using oil. After one month and six days he was restored to complete health. The loyal received fresh life, and the traders in good deeds opened the shops of thanksgiving and the general public obtained deliverance from bewilderment, and rejoiced.


Also at this time the beginning of the solar weighment took place according to the rule which has been mentioned, and there was a daily market of liberality.

One of the occurrences was the deliverance* of Shahbāz K. from the straits of prison. As the marks of repentance were visible on the forehead of the condition of that one who had stumbled into neglect, he was raised up from the school of instruction to the pleasant abode of favour, and he from thanksgiving increased his 396 loyalty and service, and gathered the flowers of success, as will be related in its place.

One of the occurrences was the appointment of acute and unavaricious overseers. As it came to the royal hearing that from the abundance of business and cupidity, there was much oppression in the conduct of the work of buying and selling, and that the traders were injured, he from a love of justice and from graciousness, ordered that various articles should be put into the charge of tact­ful and honest men in order that the unjust might be placed in the corner of failure. M. Khān had charge of horses, Rajah Todar Mal of elephants and grain, Zain Khān Koka of oil, Shāh Qulī K. Maḥram of fruits and sweetmeats, Ṣādiq K. of gold and silver, 'Itimād K. Gujrātī of jewels, Shahbāz K. of gold brocade, M. Yūsuf K. of camels, Sharīf K. of sheep and goats, Ghāzī K. Badakhshī of salt, Makhṣūṣ K. of armour, Qāsim K. of aromatics, Ḥakīm Abū-l-fatḥ of intoxicants, Khwāja 'Abdu-ṣ-Ṣamad of leathern articles, Naurang K. of dyes, Rajah Bīrbal of cattle and buffaloes, S. Jamāl of drugs, Naqīb K. of books, Laīf Khwāja of hunting animals, Ḥabīb Ullah of sugar, and the author of woollens. An order was given that the auspicious overseers should receive 1/2 p.c. from purchasers, and one p.c. from sellers, and the half should be their reward. The title of ūī begī* was bestowed on Bāqī K. and he was to get 5 p.c. on what was assessed on the two parties (to the marriage).

By this excellent regulation the rules of inspection were observed, and the garden of the outer world was kept irrigated and verdant. The general public had repose, and lustre was given to the obedient.

One of the occurrences was the bringing of Nūr Muḥammad to court. He had become notorious among the rebels of the Eastern Provinces, and had been active in oppressing the subjects. When the Khān Ā'im M. Koka came to Jaunpūr, intelligence was received that that evil-doer had come from Bengal by way of Tirhut and had joined with Khwāja 'Abdu-l-Ghafūr and stirred up commotion, and been plundering in the district of Sāran. As the heavenly super­intendents arrange for the retribution of evil-doers, they were dis­graced before the arrival of the victorious troops. Having heard of the approach of the troops, they prepared for battle. A large caravan of salt* merchants was passing, and the scoundrels went to plunder it. The merchants made a breast-work of their bags and stood firm. The assailants were soon repulsed. After that they took refuge twelve kos from Tirhut, and meditated oppressing the 397 weak. Just then the victorious army unfurled their banners, and addressed themselves to the making a bridge over the Ganges, and to the punishment of the rebels. When the bridge was nearly finished, the rebels lost heart and sought protection with the zamin­dar of Kalyānpūr,* but could not find it, and returned unsuccessful. Brave men pursued them. 'Abdu-l-Ghafūr was about to go to Bengal by way of Tirhut.* The Kasih* tribe destroyed him and seventy others, and cleaused the earth of the disturbance caused by that strifemonger. There are many of this tribe in the hill-country. In appearance and manners they are like Qalmāqs, but they are dark-complexioned. Nūr Muḥammad, the son of Tarkhān, who was proceeding towards Gya, was caught by the Khān Ā'zim's men near Campāran.* They put chains on his neck and clogs (kunda) on his arms. Out of regard to justice he was capitally punished, and evil-doers had their eyes opened.

Also at this time Rajah Bīrbar's abode was made illustrious by the advent of the Shāhinshāh. He was among the intimate asso­ciates. For him H.M. had ordered the erection of stone-palaces. When they were finished, he expressed a wish that they might be glorified by the advent of the Shāhinshāh. On 7 Bahman (January 1583) there was a splendid feast, and by the Shāhinshāh's gracious­ness his wish was gratified.

Also at this time the commander in-chiefship of the province of the Panjab was bestowed on Rajah Bhagwant Dās, and S'aīd K. received a jāgīr in Sambal. He was ordered to punish 'Arab Bahā­dur who had stirred up strife in the hill-country there. On 8 Isfan­dārmuẕ H.M. rode off to enjoy hunting, and at the close of the day alighted at the town of Jalesar. Jagmāl* Panwār has erected on a small hill, ten kos from Fatḥpūr, a delightful mansion and given it the name of Rūshinās.* Its environs delight the eye, and the verdure utters the praise of God with the tongue of action. Its air refreshes the brain. He remained three days there, making hunting the veil of Divine worship, and then returned.