NADIR SHAH marches against Khodayear Khan, He celebrates the Festival of the New Year, after the Manner of the Emperors of Hindostan.

KHODAYEAR KHAN having crossed the river Attock, which is here called Sind, had retired with his family and most valuable effects to the fort of Amer­kote, situated in a sandy desert, entirely destitute of water. He had left a great deal of money and effects in boats on the river, that in case of emergency, he might escape that way. Nadir Shah hastened to Amerkote with a small detachment. On the very day that Khodayear Khan had resolved to embark with his family on board the boats, and lie concealed amongst the islands of the Sind, till Nadir Shah’s return to Iran; Nadir Shah besieged the fort before sun-rise, when Khodayear Khan, by the advice of his friends, com­menced a negotiation, and offered to sur­render if he was only promised his life, and that his family should not be dis­graced. On account of the scarcity of water and provisions, Nadir Shah acceded to the proposed terms; and upon his coming to make his submissions, he only directed his motions to be watched, merely to secure his person; but strict orders were given, that no indignity should be offered to himself or any of his family. All the money and effects that were found in the fort, and on board the boats, were seized and sent to the camp at Larkaneh. Khodayear Khan is of a dark complexion, and afflicted with the leprosy. The inhabitants of Sind, who are Belooches*, pay him great respect on account of his virtues, considering him as their spiritual guide. His family had long possessed a Zemindarry in this country, and at present he is Soobahdar of Sind, on the part of the Emperor of Hindostan.

I was present when an inventory was taken of the effects of Khodayear Khan, and saw amongst them many things that had formerly belonged to the Seffevy Sul­tans, and which were recognized by the officers employed in taking the account. Upon enquiry it was found, that the Afghans of Kandahar when they plundered Iran, sent the most valuable articles to different places for sale.

Nadir Shah was exceedingly rejoiced at his success over Khodayear Khan. He celebrated the festival of the New Year at Larkaneh, and bestowed very consider­able presents amongst his army. To those of the first rank he gave five hun­dred mohurs each; to others from one to three hundred mohurs; and every private soldier had two mohurs. The mohur was that of Hindostan worth twenty-four rupees. Of the first rank were Allavee Khan the Hakeem Bashy, Abulhassan Khan, Lutfullah Khan, Nas­sirullah Mirza, and Thamas Khan. Amongst the others were Mirza Aly Akber, keeper of the records, and Mirza Mohammed Isfahany, Vizier of the household.

At this place Syed Mohammed Khan, waited upon Nadir Shah, with dispatches from Mohammed Shah, and some valu­able presents.

Nadir Shah appointed some of his offi­cers to remain in Sind, and after receiv­ing from Khodayear Khan two of his sons as hostages, conferred upon him the title of Shah Kuly Khan.

Before he left Larkaneh, he returned an answer to Mohammed Shah’s letter. He also sent back Zekaria Khan to Lahoor, from whence he had lately called him.

On the ninth of the month of Moher­rem, or, 25th of March, 1740, Nadir Shah marched from Larkaneh for Kan­dahar, by the road of Pesheng. Between Sind and Kandahar lies a vast desert without water, called Desht Beydow­let. The soil is so hard, and the springs lie so deep, that it is impossible to sink wells on a march.

On the third of the month Sefer, or, 18th of April, 1740, we arrived at Kan­dahar. It had a very strong fort, which was destroyed by Nadir Shah, and near the place where it stood, a mud fort is built, called Nadirabad.

After leaving Kandahar, the army forded the river Andab, and crossed the river Kersek, partly after the same man­ner, and partly in boats. Some of the plunder of Hindostan was also lost in this river.

By repeated marches, Nadir Shah arrived at the city of Ferah, the governor of which he punished for having oppressed the inhabitants. This place is in ruins; but the adjacent country is delightful.

On the 5th of Rebby-ul-awwel, or, 19th of May, 1740, we arrived at Herat, and encamped near Gazergah. From Kandahar to Herat, the towns and vil­lages are mostly in a ruinous condition; but in travelling six or eight farsangs, you will meet with one or two in a more flourishing state than others. This climate is very different from that of Cabul, for on the first of Moherrem, on the borders of the Bungishat, I saw wheat a cubit high, and three months after, when I arrived at Herat, the harvest was not in more forwardness.

Herat must have been a fine city, but from the oppressions of the government, it is now in such a state of desolation, that the ground floors of the houses are ploughed up and sown with grain. The fruits of this country are very fine, particularly the musk melons, which are inimitable. Here are ruins of magnificent mosques and tombs. During the sum­mer the wind blows very strong, when they make use of wind-mills to grind their corn. These strong winds are a great blessing, as without them the country would swarm with insects; and the stagnation of air would endanger a plague.

In order to make the necessary prepa­rations for an expedition against Turan, Nadir Shah remained a month and a half at Herat. He positively directed that persons of all ranks should leave their superfluous baggage at Herat; and that one tent should suffice for ten men. His own treasure, the Jewel-office, and Peacock-throne he sent to Meshed. He appointed his son Nasser ullah Mirza to govern at Herat, and left along with him Allavee Khan the Hakeem Bashy.