NADIR SHAH marches from Shahjehana­bad,
on his return to Persia.

ON the 7th of Sefer, A H. 1152, or 4th. of May, A. D. 1739, Nadir Shah resigned over to Mohammed Shah the empire of Hindostan; and march­ing from Dehly, encamped at the garden of Shalehmar.

He had given positive orders to Hajee Folad Khan, the Cutwal* of Dehly, that if any of his soldiers were found in the city after his march, to cut off their ears and noses, and then send them to him. However, many disgusted with his tyranny, ran all hazards by staying behind; some of whom incurred the punish­ment, whilst others were happy enough to elude the diligent search of the Cut­wal. As all the country on the Lahoor road had been totally desolated by the Kezlebashes* on their march to Dehly, Nadir Shah now resolved to take the route of Syalkote, which being well inhabited, would afford him fresh plunder. Being the month of May, the sun’s rays were exceedingly powerful, and the wind scorching hot, when the Persians unac­customed to such weather, and who were clothed for a cold climate, were not able to support the fatigue, so that great num­bers of men and cattle expired on this march, Those who survived the fatigue and heat of the journey were restored to their health by the refreshing stream of Chenab, which issuing from the neigh­bouring mountains, was at this season so intensely cold, that no man could stand in it up to his waist for one moment.

As soon as the bridge was formed over the Chenab, the inhabitants, who upon the approach of the Persian army, had fled to the mountains to avoid being plun­dered, came in the middle of the night, and throwing large trees into the river, the rapidity of the stream carried them with such violence against the boats, as broke the chains asunder, and a great number of people perished. Nadir Shah despairing of being able to repair the bridge, was under the necessity of cross­ing his army in boats; which detained him here some days. This halt, however, was of great service to his troops, by allowing them time to recruit their health and spirits. Men of all ranks were dis­satisfied with his service, yet dared not desert; but were compelled to submit to his severities, sooner than entail utter ruin on their families, who would have been made accountable for their conduct; and their property wherever it could have been discovered, would have been confis­cated. Thus without either chain or yoke, they were held in cruel bondage; and whilst the instruments of their mas­ter’s tyranny, were themselves the most abject and oppressed slaves.

Abulhassan Beg, the Yekah Bashy*, was ordered to place trusty people at the ferry, to examine all persons before they passed the river; and if any valuable jewels were discovered upon them, to seize and send them to the royal treasury. Upon the publication of this order, some came of themselves, and delivered up the jewels they had got in plunder, and these were rewarded with dresses and other presents. From others were taken what they had concealed in the packs and saddles of their horses, camels, or mules. Some buried their stores in the ground, hoping that after the search was over, they might be able to return, and dig them up again; but from the strict orders of Nadir Shah, which were punctually obeyed, it was impossible for any one to recross the river; and thus the treasure remained in the bowels of its parent earth. Others, out of rage and indignation, threw into the river whatever they had concealed. The Yekah Bashy was directed to see that all the Hindostany prisoners were released, and given in charge to Zekariah Khan, the Soobahdar of Lahoor, to be sent back to their respective countries.

When the army had crossed the Che­nab, Nadir Shah informed his officers of his intention to march to Cashmeer; but upon its being represented to him that the roads were difficult for an army to pass, and that provisions would be found very scarce, he laid aside all thoughts of that expedition. Here Zekariah Khan took his leave and set out for Lahoor.

By repeated marches, without one halt­ing day intervening, notwithstanding it rained almost incessantly, he arrived on the banks of the Jylum. In the middle of the river, a camel loaded with gold plate took fright, and falling from the bridge of boats was drowned, and no part of the plate was ever recovered, At this place Nadir Shah sent back Mahomed Shah’s artillery, and made them a present of the gold plate, which was sunk in the river. They of course exerted all their endeavours, but only lost their time. It is said, indeed, that they found a brass bason and ewer. Although it rained violently, he marched along the borders of Rawil Pundy, and passing Hassan Abdal, encamped on the banks of the river, which runs through the territory of the Afghans of Yousef Zei. From hence he sent a detachment to subdue those Afghans, who had never yet been deprived of their inde­pendence. They had a deep river to pass, and the Afghans had burnt all the boats; but Nadir Shah ordered the men to cross on elephants, and swim their horses; by which means having gained the opposite side, the enemy, after a vigorous resistance, in which they suffered great slaughter, were obliged to sub­mit; and to obtain quarter, engaged to pay a tribute, and to furnish Nadir Shah’s army with thirty thousand effective men. Nadir Shah was glad to grant them these terms, for had he been detained a month longer on this expedition, the mountains of Cabul would have been impassable, on account of the snow; whilst the state affairs in Persia began to require his presence in that quarter.