These proceedings had come under the notice of the Emperor before his accession, * * and he resolved to put an end to them if ever he ascended the throne, that the coinage might always bear the stamp of the glorious dynasty, and the pulpit might be graced with its khutba. After his accession, he appointed Kásim Khán to the government of Bengal, and * * impressed upon him the duty of overthrowing these mischievous people. He was ordered, as soon as he attended to the necessary duties of his extensive province, to set about the extermination of the pernicious intruders. Troops were to be sent both by water and land, so that this difficult enterprise might be quickly and easily accomplished.

Kásim Khán set about making his preparations, and at the close of the cold season, in Sha'bán, 1240 A.H., he sent his son 'Ináyatu-ulla with Alláh Yár Khán, who was to be the real commander of the army, and several other nobles, to effect the conquest of Húglí. He also sent Bahádur Kambú, an active and in­telligent servant of his, with the force under his command, under the pretence of taking possession of the Khálisa lands at Makhsús-ábád, but really to join Alláh Yár Khán at the proper time. Under the apprehension that the infidels, upon getting intelligence of the march of the armies, would put their families on board ships, and so escape from destruction to the disappointment of the warriors of Islám, it was given out that the forces were marching to attack Hijlí. Accordingly it was arranged that Alláh Yár Khán should halt at Bardwán, which lies in the direction of Hijlí, until he received intelligence of Khwája Sher and others, who had been ordered to proceed in boats from Srípúr* to cut off the retreat of the Firingís. When the flotilla arrived at Mohána, which is a dahna* of the Húglí, Alláh Yár Khán was to march with all expedition from Bardwán to Húglí, and fall upon the infidels. Upon being informed that Khwája Sher and his com­panions had arrived at the dahna, Alláh Yár Kḥán made a forced march from Bardwán, and in a night and day reached the village of Haldipúr, between Sátgánw and Húglí. At the same time he was joined by Bahádur Kambú, who arrived from Makhsús-ábád, with 500 horse and a large force of infantry. Then he hastened to the place where Khwája Sher had brought the boats, and between Húglí and the sea, in a narrow part of the river, he formed a bridge of boats, so that ships could not get down to the sea; thus the flight of the enemy was prevented.

On the 2nd Zí-l hijja, 1241, the attack was made on the Firingís by the boatmen on the river, and by the forces on land. An inhabited place outside of the ditch was taken and plundered, and the occupants were slain. Detachments were then ordered to the villages and places on both sides of the river, so that all the Christians found there might be sent to hell. Having killed or captured all the infidels, the warriors carried off the families of their boatmen, who were all Bengalís. Four thousand boatmen, whom the Bengalís called ghrábí, then left the Firingís and joined the victorious army. This was a great discouragement to the Christians.

The royal army was engaged for three months and a half in the siege of this strong place. Sometimes the infidels fought, sometimes they made overtures of peace, protracting the time in hopes of succour from their countrymen. With base treachery they pretended to make proposals of peace, and sent nearly a lac of rupees as tribute, while at the same time they ordered 7000 musketeers who were in their service to open fire. So heavy was it that many of the trees of a grove in which a large force of the besiegers was posted were stripped of their branches and leaves.

At length the besiegers sent their pioneers to work upon the ditch, just by the church, where it was not so broad and deep as elsewhere. There they dug channels and drew off the water. Mines were then driven on from the trenches, but two of these were discovered by the enemy and counteracted. The centre mine was carried under an edifice which was loftier and stronger than all the other buildings, and where a large number of Firingís were stationed. This was charged and tamped. On the 14th Rabí'u-l awwal the besieger's forces were drawn up in front of this building, in order to allure the enemy to that part. When a large number were assembled, a heavy fire was opened, and the mine was fired. The building was blown up, and the many infidels who had collected around it were sent flying into the air. The warriors of Islám rushed to the assault. Some of the infidels found their way to hell by the water, but some thousands succeeded in making their way to the ships. At this juncture Khwája Sher came up with the boats, and killed many of the fugitives.

These foes of the faith were afraid lest one large ship, which had nearly two thousand men and women and much property on board, should fall into the hands of the Muhammadans; so they fired the magazine and blew her up. Many others who were on board the ghrábs set fire to their vessels, and turned their faces towards hell. Out of the sixty-four large díngas, fifty-seven ghrábs and 200 jaliyas, one ghráb and two jaliyas escaped, in consequence of some fire from the burning ships having fallen upon some boats laden with oil, which burnt a way through (the bridge of boats). Whoever escaped from the water and fire became a prisoner. From the beginning of the siege to the con­clusion, men and women, old and young, altogether nearly 10,000 of the enemy were killed, being either blown up with powder, drowned in water, or burnt by fire. Nearly 1000 brave warriors of the Imperial army obtained the glory of martyrdom. 4400 Christians of both sexes were taken prisoners, and nearly 10,000 inhabitants of the neighbouring country who had been kept in confinement by these tyrants were set at liberty.

Surrender of the Fort of Gálna.

[Text, vol. i. p. 442.] After Fath Khán, son of Malik 'Ambar, had put Nizám Sháh to death, Mahmúd Khán, the commandant of the fort of Gálna, repudiated his authority, and put the fortress in a state of defence, intending to deliver it over to Sáhú-jí Bhonsla, who, unmindful of the favours he had received from the Imperial throne, had strayed from the path of obedience, and had possessed himself of Násik, Trimbak, Sangamnír and Junír, as far as the country of the Kokan. He had got into his power one of the relatives of the late Nízám Sháh, who had been confined in one of the strongest fortresses in the kingdom, and raised the banner of independence. He (Mahmud Khán)* wished to deliver the fort over to him. Khán-zamán, who was acting as deputy of his father in the government of the Dakhin, Birár and Khándesh, when he was informed of Mahmúd Khán's proceedings, wrote to Mír Kásim Khán Harawí, commandant of the fort of Alang, which is near to Gálna. He directed him to endeavour by promises of Imperial favour to win him over, and prevent the surrender of the fortress to Sáhú-jí Bhonsla. Mír Kásim communicated with Mahmúd Khán on the subject, and the latter invited the Mír to come to him. After a good deal of talk, Mahmúd Khán assented to the pro­position, and in the hope of a great reward delivered over the fort to the representatives of the Emperor.

SIXTH YEAR OF THE REIGN, 1042 A.H. (1632 A.D.).

[Text, vol. i. p. 449.] Bhágírat Bhíl, chief of the disaffected in the province of Málwa, relying on the number of his followers and the strength of his fort of Khátákhírí,* had refused obedience to the governors of Málwa. He ventured to show his disaffection to Nusrat Khán, when he was governor, and the Khán marched from Sárangpúr to chastise him. The Khán's fame as a soldier had its effect. The rebel gave up all hope of resistance, and, seeking an introduction to Nusrat Khán through Sangrám, Zamíndár of Kanúr, he surrendered his fortress.

Destruction of Hindu Temples.

[p. 449.] It had been brought to the notice of His Majesty that during the late reign many idol temples had been begun, but remained unfinished, at Benares, the great stronghold of infidelity. The infidels were now desirous of completing them. His Majesty, the defender of the faith, gave orders that at Benares, and throughout all his dominions in every place, all temples that had been begun should be cast down. It was now reported from the province of Allahábád that seventy-six temples had been destroyed in the district of Benares.