Nasir-ood-Deen Subooktugeen, ruler of Ghizny, a dependency of the kingdom of Bokhara, governed by the dynasty of Sa-many. — Subooktugeen makes war with Jeipal, Raja of the Punjab. — Peace concluded. — Jeipal imprisons the Moslem am­bassadors. — War renewed. — Battle of Lumghan, in which the Hindoos are defeated and pursued to the Indus. — Death of Abool Munsoor Sumany, King of Bokhara. — His son Nooh ascends the throne. — Fâïk, one of his generals, creates a revolt. — Subooktugeen unites with the King of Bokhara to oppose him. — Fâïk finds an ally in Boo-Ally-Hussun Bin Sunjur, ruler of Khorassan, and also in Fukhr-ood-Dowla, Delimy of Joorjan. — Fâïk and his allies march against the King of Bokhara and Subooktugeen, but the former are de­feated. — Mahmood, the son of Subooktugeen is left at Ny-shapoor. — Fâïk and the allies attack Mahmood, who is only saved from defeat by the timely arrival of his father. — Fâïk flies to Kilat in Seestan. — Death of Subooktugeen. — His character.

ALTHOUGH Ameer Nasir-ood-deen Subooktugeen neither crossed the Indus nor subdued any part of Punjab, all writers include him in the dynasty of the kings of Lahore. Historians affirm that Ameer Subooktugeen, who afterwards acquired the title of Nasir-ood-deen, was a Toork by descent. He was educated, and taught the use of arms, among the other slaves of Aluptugeen. During the reign of the house of Samany, * Aluptugeen was honoured with the government of Kho-rassan, where having raised himself to distinc­tion, on the death of Abdool Mullik Samany, the nobles sent a deputation to consult him regard­ing a successor. Aluptugeen hesitated not to op­pose the accession of the Prince Munsoor on the plea of his being too young, recommending that his uncle should for the present assume the reins of government. Before his answer arrived, a party at the capital had raised Munsoor to the throne, and, consequently, when the young king sent for Aluptugeen to court, he, being apprehensive for

A. H. 351.
A. D. 962.

his life, made excuses, and neglected to appear. In the year 351 he broke out into open rebellion, and marched to Ghizny, which he subdued, and there established an independent power.

Munsoor hearing of this defection, conferred the government of Khorassan on Abool-Hussun Ma-homed, the son of Ibrahim Sunjur, Toorkoman, and twice sent armies to attack Aluptugeen, which were on both occasions defeated.

According to the narrative of Ahmud-oolla Moostowfy, Aluptugeen retained his independence fifteen years, during which period his general, Su-booktugeen, being engaged in frequent wars with

A. H. 365.
A. D. 975.

the Indians, as often defeated them. Alup-tugeen died in the year 365, and his son Aboo-Isaac, accompanied by Subooktu-geen, proceeded to Bokhara. At this time Aboo-Isaac received a formal commission from Munsoor, as governor of Ghizny; and Subooktugeen was also appointed by the king his deputy and provisional successor. Aboo-Isaac survived this event but

A. H. 367.
A. D. 977.

a short period, when Subooktugeen, in the year 367, was unanimously acknowledged king by the chiefs of Ghizny.

On this occasion, also, he espoused the daughter of Aluptugeen, and became as celebrated for his justice in the administration of his affairs as for the great popularity he acquired among his subjects, of all conditions.

Minhaj-oos-Siraj Joorjany has given the follow­ing account of Subooktugeen's origin:—“A mer­chant of the name of Nusr-Hajy having purchased Subooktugeen while yet a boy, brought him from Toorkistan to Bokhara, where he was sold to Aluptugeen, who, perceiving in him the promise of future greatness, raised him by degrees to posts of confidence and distinction, till, at length, on his establishing his independence at Ghizny, he con­ferred on him the title of Ameer-ool-Omra (chief of the nobles), and also that of Vakeel-i-Mootluk, or Representative.” Subooktugeen is said to be lineally descended from Yezdijerd (the last of the Persian monarchs), who, when flying from his ene­mies during the Caliphate of Oothman, was mur­dered at a water-mill near the town of Murv. His family being left in Toorkistan formed connections among the people, and his descendants became Toorks. His genealogy is as follows:—Subooktu-geen, the son of Jookan, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Ferooz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. * Soon after Subooktu-geen had assumed the ensigns of royalty, he had nearly lost his life by the hands of one Toghan, an independent chief, on the confines of the province of Ghizny. Toghan had lately been restored to his government (from which he had been expelled by one of his neighbours), on condition that he should hold it of the crown of Ghizny. But he failed in his allegiance. Subooktugeen, while making a circuit of his dominions, came to this chief's province, where, having invited him to the chase, and being alone, he upbraided him with his breach of faith. Toghan, feeling the reproof bitterly, put his hand on his sword, the king drew his in self-defence; a combat ensued, in which Subooktugeen was wounded in the hand, and his attendants interfering, as well as those of Toghan, an action took place, wherein Toghan being defeated, fled to the fort of Boost. The fort was besieged and taken, but Toghan effected his escape.

It was here the king became acquainted with Abool Futteh, the most learned man of his day. He was originally secretary to the chief of Boost, * whom Subooktugeen had expelled in favour of the ungrateful Toghan. Abool Futteh now became secretary to Subooktugeen, and continued in his office at Ghizny till the accession of Mahmood, when he retired in disgust to Toorkistan.

Subooktugeen, having reduced the fortress of Boost, marched to Kandahar, and conquered that province; the governor of which place, although made prisoner, was afterwards enrolled among the officers of the Ghizny court. Towards the close of

A. H. 367.
A. D. 977.

the first year of his reign, the King, resolv­ing on a war with the idolaters of India, marched in that direction, and having taken certain forts, caused mosques to be built, and then returned with considerable spoil to Ghizny.

Jeipal, the son of Hutpal, of the Brahmin tribe, reigned at that time over the country, extending in length from Surhind to Lumghan, and in breadth from the kingdom of Kashmeer to Moultan. He resided in the fort of Bitunda for the conveni­ence of taking steps for opposing the Mahome-dans; and finding, by their reiterated invasions, that he was unlikely to enjoy tranquillity at home, he raised a great army, and brought together numer­ous elephants, with a design to attack them in their own country. Subooktugeen, receiving intelli­gence of Jeipal's intentions, marched another force towards India. The two armies coming in sight of each other, on the confines of Lumghan, some skirmishes ensued, and Mahmood, the son of Subooktugeen, though then but a boy, gave signal proofs of his valour and conduct.

Many days elapsed without the opponents having engaged each other, when it was mentioned to Mahmood, that in the camp of Jeipal was a spring, into which, if a mixture of ordure should be thrown the sky would immediately become overcast, and a dreadful storm of hail and wind arise. Mahmood having caused this to be done, the effects became visible; for instantly the sky lowered, and thunder, lightning, wind, and hail succeeded, turning the day into night, and spread­ing horror and destruction around; insomuch that a great part of the cattle was killed, and some thousands of the soldiers of both armies perished. But the troops of Ghizny being more hardy than those of Hindoostan, suffered less than their ene­mies. Jeipal in the morning found his army so dispersed and dejected from the effects of the storm, that, fearing Subooktugeen would take ad­vantage of his condition to attack him, he made overtures for peace, in which he offered to pay to the king of Ghizny a certain tribute, and to pro­pitiate him with presents of elephants and gold.

Subooktugeen was disposed to accede to these proposals, but his son Mahmood prevailed with his father to reject them. Jeipal now sent other ambassadors to explain to Subooktugeen the cus­toms of the Indian soldiers, particularly the rajpoots, who, if driven to desperation,” said he, “murder their wives and children, set fire to their houses and property, let loose their hair, and rush­ing on the enemy, are heedless of death, in order to obtain revenge.”

Subooktugeen, convinced of the truth of Jeipal's statement, consented to terms. Jeipal agreed to pay a large sum in specie, and to deliver to Subook-tugeen fifty elephants. Unable to discharge the whole sum in camp, Jeipal desired that persons, on the part of Subooktugeen, should accom­pany him to Lahore, to receive the balance; for whose safety hostages were left with Subook-tugeen. On reaching Lahore, finding Subooktu-geen had returned to Ghizny, at the instance of his Braminical advisers, Jeipal refused payment, and imprisoned the persons left to receive the money.