The Arabians proceed towards Persia. — Progress through Kir­man, Seestan, Kohistan, and Nyshapoor. — Settlement in Kho-rassan, Murv, Badghees, and Joorjistan. — Attempt by Karoon, a Persian chieftain, to recover Khorassan, defeated by Abdoolla Bin Jazim. — Abdoolla Bin Zeead enters Transoxania — is recalled, and succeeded by his brother Sulim Bin Zeead. — Sulim is accompanied by Mohalib Bin Aby Sufra. — Kabul revolts from the Moslems, who are expelled. — Sulim recovers Kabul, and appoints one Abdoolla to the government. — Ab-doolla superseded, and retires among the Afghans of the Sooli-many mountains — becomes the father of Lody and Soor, from whom two Afghan tribes derive their name. — The Afghans make war on the Hindoo Prince of Lahore. — The Gukkurs form a treaty with the Afghans. — The Raja of Lahore cedes country to the Gukkurs to defend his territory from the inva­sions of the Afghans.

THE first chieftain who spread the banners of the true faith on the plains of Hind was Mohalib * Bin Aby Sufra.

A. H. 28.
A. D. 648.
In the 28th year of the Hijra, shortly after the accession of the Caliph Ooth-man, that prince deputed Abdoolla Bin Amir, governor of Bussora, to reduce the province of Fars, which had revolted since the death of the Caliph Oomur. Abdoolla having succeeded in quelling the insurrection, returned to Bussora.

Two years after this event, the Caliph Oothman removed Wuleed Bin Atiba from the government of Koofa on account of his licentious excesses, and appointed Syeed Bin Aby-ool-Aas governor in his stead. Syeed shortly after led an army through Persia as far as Tubristan; on which occasion he was accompanied by Hussun and Hoossein, the two sons of Ally, and by their exertions he reduced the province of Joorjan, the capital of which is Astra-bad, on the borders of the Caspian Sea, and re­ceived from the inhabitants, whom he converted to the true faith, a contribution of two hundred thousand deenars.

A. H. 31.
A. D. 651.
On the following year, Abdoolla Bin Ãmir was again deputed to lead an army into Kirman, and eventually into Khor-assan. His advanced guard, under the com­mand of Huneef Bin Keis, subdued the pro­vinces of Seestan, Kohistan, and Nyshapoor. At the latter place, Abdoolla was joined by the Prince of Toos, and from thence proceeded to reduce Surukhsh, Hirat, Badghees, Ghoor, Joorjistan, Murv, Talikhan, and Bulkh.

After these successes Abdoolla quitted the army and proceeded to Mecca, making the follow­ing distribution of the conquered provinces amongst his respective generals:—

To Keis, the son of Hashem, — Khorassan.

To Huneef, the son of Keis, — Murv, Talikhan, and Nyshapoor.

To Khalid, the son of Abdoolla, — Badghees, Goor, and Joorjistan.

A. H. 32.
A. D. 652.
In the year 32, Abdool Rahman Bin Rubeea was deputed from Bagdad to Persia to propagate the true faith; but being overpowered by numbers, he was slain and his army dispersed; many of his followers sought protection in Joorjan and Geelan. In the same year, Karoon, one of the nobles of the Persian government, having learned that Abdoolla had gone to Mecca, and had divided his army over the several conquered provinces, collected a body of forty thousand men composed of the inhabitants of Tubus, Herat, Badghees, Ghoor, and Kohistan, and marched against the Moslem forces. Karoon was, however, defeated by Abdoolla Bin Jazim, one of the officers of Huneef, in Nyshapoor, with an inconsiderable body of four thousand men, for which service Abdoolla received the charge of the government of Khorassan.

A. H. 44.
A. D. 664.
In the year 44, the Caliph Moavia Bin Aby Soofian nominated Zeead, the son of Oomya, to the government of Bussora, Seestan, and Khorassan. In the same year also Abdool Ruhman Bin Shimur, another Arab Ameer of distinction, marched from Murv to Kabul, where he made converts of upwards of twelve thousand persons. At the same time, also, Mohalib Bin Aby-Suffra, proceeding with a detachment from thence, in the direction of India, penetrated as far as Mooltan; when, having plundered the country, he returned to the head-quarters of the army at Khorassan, bringing with him many prisoners, who were com­pelled to become converts to the faith.

A. H. 53.
A. D. 672.
In the year 53, Zeead, the son of Oom-yah, died at Bussorah of the plague, which now made its appearance in that city. Before that Moavia, however, had heard of his death, he nominated Abdoolla, the son of Zeead, to the government of Koofa, who, proceeding with an army through Persia to Mawur-oolnuhr, partly reduced it. Being now recalled from his conquests to fill the stations lately held by his father as governor of Bussorah, Abdoolla pro­ceeded thither, leaving his relative Salim Bin Zoora in the government of Khorassan.

A. H. 56.
A. D. 678.
Three years after this, Salim was super­seded by Saad, Bin Oothman Bin Iffan now appointed governor of Khorassan by the Caliph Moavia. Saad was recalled in the

A. H. 59.
A. D. 681.

year 59, and Abdool Ruhman, the son of Zeead, who formerly invaded Kabul, was nominated ruler of Khorassan. He was, sub­sequently, removed to make room for Sulim Bin-

A. H. 62.
A. D. 683.

Zeead, in the year 62, by Yezeed, the son of Moavia, who had then succeeded to the Caliphate. Among the persons who accompanied Sulim to his new government was Mohalib, the son of Aby-Suffra. Shortly after his arrival in Khorassan, Sulim deputed his brother, Yezeed Bin Zeead, to Seestan. Not long after, Yezeed, having learned that the Prince of Kabul, throwing off his allegiance, had attacked and taken prisoner Aby Oobeyda, the son of Zeead, the late governor of Seestan, he marched with a force to recover that province, but was defeated in a pitched battle. When Sulim heard this news, he sent Tilla Bin Abdoolla, an officer of his court, as envoy to the court of Kabul, to ransom Aby Oobeyda; to obtain which object he paid 500,000 dirhems. Tilla afterwards received the govern­ment of Seestan as a reward for his services on this occasion, where, having collected a large force, he subdued Kabul, and Khalid Bin Abdoolla (said by some to be the son of Khalid Bin Wuleed, and by others the son of Aboo Jehl) was nominated to its government. Khalid being sub­sequently superseded, became apprehensive of returning to Arabia by the route of Persia, on account of the enemies he had in that country, and equally so of remaining in Kabul, under his suc­cessor. He retired, therefore, with his family, and a number of Arab retainers, into the Sooli-many mountains, situated between Mooltan and Pishawur, where he took up his residence, and gave his daughter in marriage to one of the Afghan chiefs, who had become a proselyte to Maho-medism. From this marriage many children were born, among whom were two sons famous in his­tory. The one Lody, the other Soor; who each, subsequently, became head of the tribes which to this day bear their name.

I have read in the Mutla-ool-Anwar, * a work written by a respectable author, and which I pro­cured at Boorhanpoor, a town of Kandeish in the Dekkan, that the Afghans are Copts of the race of the Pharaohs; and that when the prophet Moses got the better of that infidel who was over­whelmed in the Red Sea, many of the Copts be­came converts to the Jewish faith; but others, stubborn and self-willed, refusing to embrace the true faith, leaving their country, came to India, and eventually settled in the Soolimany mountains, where they bore the name of Afghans. At the time when Abraha marched against Mecca, he was accompanied by several tribes of infidels from far and near, and, on that occasion, a body of these Afghans, * it is said, also joined his forces. These tribes were eventually annihilated.

At the time of the settlement of Abdoolla, the Afghans, already converts to the true faith, received the Mahomedans among them, whose flocks and herds increased; and their agriculture flourished so rapidly, that in a few years afterwards, at the time of the invasion of Sind and Mooltan by Mahomed Kassim, they afforded protection to his followers

A. H. 63.
A. D. 682.

who remained with them. In the year 63, the Mahomedan Afghans, issuing from their mountains, invaded and laid waste the inhabited countries, such as Kirman, Sheewuran, and Pishawur. The Raja of Lahore, who was related to the Ray† * of Ajmeer, sent 1000 horse to attack and annihilate these marauders; but the former being defeated with severe loss, the Raja despatched his nephew with a force of 2000 horse and 5000 infantry to make a second endeavour to expel them.

The Afghans having procured reinforcements from Khulij, Ghoor, and Kabul, to the number of four thousand men, marched against the In­dian forces. The two armies fought, in the five ensuing months, seventy actions; but the winter setting in severely, the Indians were com­pelled to retreat to Lahore, an object which they effected with great difficulty. In the following spring the Indians again took the field, under their former general. The Afghans met them on a plain between Kirman and Pishawur, where several indecisive actions took place, till at length the rainy season being about to commence, the Indians took the opportunity of a temporary advantage which they had gained over the Afghans to retreat by forced marches, so as to cross the Neelab while yet fordable. The same cause also induced the Mahomedans to return within their frontiers. About this period some disputes arising between the Gukkurs * and the Raja of Lahore, this race formed a treaty of alliance, defensive and offensive with the Afghans, who compelled the Raja of Lahore to submit to terms from the Gukkurs, to whom he could otherwise himself have dictated conditions.

This treaty included the cession of certain terri­tories in perpetuity to the Gukkurs, and to the tribe of Khullij, which was permitted by the Afghans to reside in the country of Lumghan; it was secretly provided, also, that they should pro­tect the Indian frontier from the Mahomedan in­vasions. The Mahomedan Afghans, notwithstand­ing, still continued their depredations, and advanced near Pishawur, where they erected a fort in the hills to which they gave the name of Khybur, subduing at the same time the province of Roh. This district extends from Swad and Beejowr, on the north, as far south as Seewy near Bhukkur in Sind; and from east to west from Hussun-Abdall to Kabul and Kandahar.

During the reign of the Samany kings, the Afghans formed a barrier between the kingdom of Mooltan and Lahore, and thus we find the Samany troops always limited their predatory excursions to Sind and Tatta. When the government of Ghizny devolved on Aluptugeen, his general, Subooktu-geen frequently invaded the provinces of Mooltan and Lumghan, carrying away its inhabitants as slaves, in spite of the efforts of the Afghans. Jeipal, the Raja of Lahore, concerted measures with the Bhattia * Raja, and being convinced that his troops were unable to withstand the inclemency of the northern climate so as to retaliate on the in­vaders, concerted measures with the Bhattia Raja to obtain the services of Sheikh Humeed, Afghan, who being appointed governor of Mooltan and Lumghan, placed garrisons of Afghan troops in those districts.

From that period the Afghans became military chiefs. On the death of Aluptugeen, Subooktu-geen succeeded to his power; and Sheikh Humeed perceiving that his own country would, in all pro­bability, suffer in the incursions with which Su-booktugeen threatened India, united himself with that prince.

Subooktugeen, from motives of policy, avoided the districts of Sheikh Humeed by every means in his power; but his son Mahmood, on the contrary, made furious war against the Afghans, putting to death all who did not acknowledge his supremacy, by which means he eventually compelled the whole of the tribes to submit to him.