In the name of God the Merciful, the Clement.

After praising* the King (God) whose kingdom is immune from decline and fall and then praising the Refuge of the World (Mahomet, the prophet of the moslems), the ring of whose servitude adorns the ears of all world-conquering, throne-adorning and auspicious kings, it is not hidden from the bright minds of appreciative wise men and intelligent eloquent persons that in this work entitled “Rūka’át-i-Álamgiri” (Aurungzebe’s Letters) otherwise styled “Kalimát-i-Taiyibát” (the Excellent Words), com­prising the blessed letters of the just king Abūl Mūzaffar Mūhūdin Mahammad Aurung Bahádūr, the emperor of India—may God sanctify his tomb—, the words “the eldest son of sovereignty” (the heir-apparent) and “the happy son” stand for the eldest prince sultan Mahammad Mūazzam, otherwise known as Sháh Álam Bahádūr,* and in some letters the words “the happy son” are also applicable to sultan Mahammad A’azam Sháh Bahádūr. The words “the unfriendly brother” are applied to Dárá Shekūh, the eldest brother of His Majesty (Aurungzebe). The words “the dear grandson” and “the brave grandson” are (respectively) applicable to Mahammad Ma’az-ūd-Din Bahádūr, the eldest son of Sháh Álam Bahádūr and to Mahammad Bidár Bakhta Bahádūr, the eldest son of Sultan Mahammad A’azam Sháh Bahádūr. The words “the grandson of high dignity” refer to Mahammad Azim-ūd-Din Bahádūr, the second son of Sháh Álam Bahádūr. The words “the pillar of the kingdom”, “the centre of affairs” and “that sacrifice” are applied to Asad Khán, who after the death of Sháyasta Khán was made Ameer-ul-Umará* (the Grandee of the Grandees) of the court. The words “Khán Firūz Jang” (Victorious Khán) refer to Gházi-ūd-Din Khán Bahádūr Firūz Jang. The words “Nasrat Jang” (victorious in battle) mean Zūl Fikár Khán Bahádūr Nasrat Jang. The words “Mirzá Bakhashi” (the grandee, the pay­master) stand for Mirzá Sadr-ūd-Din Mahammad Khán Safavi. The words “meer átesh” (the master of ordnance) are applicable to Tarbiat Khán. By the word “Hamid” (the praiseworthy) is meant Hamid-ūd-Din Khán Bahádūr.