‘He is the Bayard and the Don Quixote of Akbar's reign.’ In his jiháds he was sans peur, and in his private life sans reproche; he surpassed all grandees by his faith­fulness and attachment to his masters, but his contingent was never in order; he was always poor, though his servants in consequence of his liberality lived in affluence. He slept on the ground, because his Prophet had enjoyed no greater luxuries; and his motto in fight was ‘death or victory;’ and when people asked him, why he did not invert the order and say ‘victory or death,’ he would reply, ‘O! I do long to be with the saints that have gone before.’

He was the patron of the Historian Badáoní,* who served Husain as almoner to his estate (Shamsábád and Patiálí).

Husain Khán was not only sister's son, but also son-in-law to Mahdí Qásim Khán (No. 36). He was in Bairám's service. In the second year, after the conquest of Mánkoṭ, Akbar made him Governor of Láhor, where he remained four months and four days. When Akbar, in Çafar 965, marched to Dihlí, he appointed H. Kh. Governor of the Panjáb. During his incumbency, he shewed himself a zealous Sunní. As the Christians did with the Jews, he ordered the Hindús as unbelievers to wear a patch (Hind. tukrá) near the shoulders, and thus got the nickname of Tukriyah, ‘Patcher.’

Like Sháh Qulí Khán Mahram (No. 45), he stuck to Bairám to the last, and did not meet Akbar at Jhújhar; but after Bairám had been pardoned, he entered Akbar's service. When Mahdí Qásim Khán, from dislike to Gaḍha, went by way of the Dak'hin to Makkah, H. Kh. accompanied him a short distance on the road. On his return, he reached Satwás in Málwah, when the rebellion of the Mírzás broke out, and in concert with Muqarrib Khán, the tuyúldár of that place, he tried to fortify himself in Satwás. But Muqarrib lost heart and fled; and H. Kh. was forced to leave the Fort, and asked Ibráhím Husain Mírzá for an interview. Though urged to join the Mírzá, H. Kh. remained faithful to Akbar.

In the 12th year, when Akbar moved against Khán Zamán, H. Kh. was to take a command, but his contingent was not ready. In the 13th year his jágír was transferred from Lak'hnau, where he and Badáoní had been for about a year, to Kánt o Golah.* His exacting behaviour towards Hindús and his religious expeditions against their temples annoyed Akbar very much. In the 19th year, when the Emperor went to Bihár, H. Kh. was again absent; and when Akbar returned after the conquest of Hájípúr, he confiscated H.'s jágír; but on satisfying himself of his harmlessness, he pardoned him, restored his jágír, and told him to get his contingent ready. His mania, however, again overpowered him. He made an expedition against Basantpúr in Kamáon, which was proverbially rich, and got wounded by a bullet in the shoulder. Akbar was almost convinced that he had gone into rebellion, and sent Çádiq Khán (No. 43) to him to bring him by force to Court. H. Kh. therefore left Gaṛh Muktesar, with the view of going to Mun'im Khán, through whose influence he hoped to obtain pardon. But he was caught at Bárha, and was taken to Fathpúr Síkrí, where in the same year (983) he died of his wounds.

The Ṭabaqát says, he was a Commander of Two Thousand; but according to the Akbarnámah, he had since the 12th year been a Commander of Three Thousand.

His son, Yúsuf Khán, was a grandee of Jahángír. He served in the Dak'hin in the corps of 'Azíz Kokah (No. 21), who, in the 5th year, had been sent with 10,000 men to reinforce Prince Parwíz, the Khán Khánán, and Mán Singh, because on account of the duplicity of the Khán Khánán (Tuzuk p. 88) the imperialists were in the greatest distress (vide pp. 327 and 336). Yúsuf's son, 'Izzat Khán, served under Sháhjahán, (Pádísháhn. II, 121).

54. Mura´d Kha´n, son of Amír Khán Mughul Beg.

His full name is Muhammad Murád Khán. In the 9th year, he served under A´çaf Khán (No. 49) in Gaḍha Katangah. In the 12th year, he got a jágír in Málwah, and fought under Shihábuddín Ahmad against the Mírzás. After the Mírzás had returned to Gujrát, M. got Ujjain as tuyúl.

In the 13th year, the Mírzás invaded Málwah from Khandesh, and Murád Khán, together with Mír 'Azízullah, the Díwán of Málwah, having received the news two days before the arrival of the enemies, shut themselves up in Ujjain, determined to hold it for Akbar. The Emperor sent Qulij Khán (No. 42) to their relief, when the Mírzás retreated to Mandú. Followed up by Qulij and Murád, they retreated at last across the Narbaddah.

In the 17th year, the Mírzás broke out in Gujrát, and the jágírdárs of Málwah assembled under the command of M. 'Azíz Kokah (No. 21). Murád held a command in the left wing, and took part, though not very actively, in the confused battle near Patan (Ramazán, 980).

In 982, he was attached to Mun'im's expedition to Bengal. He conquered for Akbar the district of Fathábád, Sirkár Boglá (S. E. Bengal), and was made Governor of Jalesar (Jellasore) in Oṛísá, after Dáúd had made peace with Mun'im.

When in 983, after Mun'im's death, Dáúd fell upon Nazar Bahádur, Akbar's Governor of Bhadrak (Oṛísá), and treacherously killed him, Murád wisely retreated to Ṭánḍah.*

Subsequently M. was again appointed to Fathábád, where he was when the Bengal rebellion broke out. Murád at Fathábád, Qiyá Khán in Oṛísá, Mirzá Naját at Sátgáṉw, were almost the only officers of Akbar's Bengal corps, that did not take part in the great military revolt of 988. Qiyá was killed by Qutlú (p. 343), and Murád died at Fathábád, immediately after the first outbreak of the revolt in 988, ‘before the veil of his loyalty was rent.’

After his death, Mukand, the principal Zamíndár of Fathábád, invited Murád's sons to a feast, and treacherously murdered them.

Vide No. 369.

55. Ha´ji´ Muhammad Kha´n of Sístán.

He was in the service of Bairám, who was much attached to him. In 961, when Bairám held Qandahár, rumours of treason reached Humáyún. The Emperor went from Kábul to Qandahár, and personally investigated the matter, but finding Bairám innocent, he went back, taking Hájí Muhammad with him, who during the investiga­tion had been constantly referred to as inclined to rebellion.*

After the conquest of Hindústán, H. M., at Bairám's request, was made a Khán, and was rapidly promoted.

In the 1st year of Akbar's reign, H. M. was ordered to accompany Khizr Khwá­jah (p. 365, note 2) on his expedition against Sikandar Súr. Tardí Beg's (No. 12) defeat by Hemú had a bad effect on the Emperor's cause; and Mullá 'Abdullah Makh­dúm ulmulk who, though in Akbar's service, was said to be devoted to the interests of the Afgháns, represented to Sikandar that he should use this favorable opportunity and leave the Sawáliks. As related above, Khizr Khwájah moved against Sikandar, leaving H. M. in charge of Láhor. Being convinced of Makhdúm's treason, H. M. tortured him, and forced him to give up sums of money which he had con­cealed.

In 966, Bairám fell out with Pír Muhammad (No. 20), and deprived him of his office and emoluments which were given to H. M. When Bairám fell into disgrace, he sent H. M. with several other Amírs to Dihlí with expressions of his humility and desire to be pardoned. But H. M. soon saw that all was lost. He did not receive permission to go back to Bairám. After Bairám had been pardoned (p. 318), H. M. and Muhammad Tarson Khán (No. 32) accompanied him on his way to Hijáz as far as Nágor, then the frontier of the Empire. Once, on the road, Bairám charged H. M. with faithlessness, when the latter gently reminded him that he had at least never drawn his sword against his master.

H. M. was present in almost every campaign, and was promoted to the post of Sih-hazárí. In the 12th year, when Akbar set out for the conquest of Chítor, he sent H. M. and Shibábuddín Ahmad (No. 26) from Gágrún against the sons of Sulṭán Muhammad Mírzá, who had fled from Sambhal and raised a revolt in Málwah. H. M. then received the Sirkár of Mandú as jágír.

In the 20th year, H. M. accompanied Mun'im Khan on his expedition to Bengal and Oṛísá, and got wounded in the battle of Takaroí (20th Zí Qa'dah, 982). He then accompanied the Khán Khánán to Gaur, where soon after Mun'im's death he, too, died of malaria (983).