Awrangzīb Also known as ʿĀlamgīr I. d. 1118/1707

Mughal Emperor

Abu’l-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Muḥyi al-Dīn Awrangzīb ʿAlamgīr was born in 1027/1618. He was the third son of Mughal Emperor Šāh Jahān. Awrangzīb received a very good education during his youth. As a result, he was both able to hold his own in disputations with the ʿulamāʾ (people of religious learning) and compose respectable Persian prose. However, it was his skill as a military commander that gained him an early reputation. After Šāh Jahān fell ill in 1067/1657, Awrangzīb’s military prowess allowed him to outmaneuver his four brothers and ascend the throne. Awrangzīb ruled the Mughal Empire from 1069/1658 until his death in 1118/1707.

Much of Awrangzīb’s long rule was characterized by a series of wars. While many wars were of his own seeking, others were prompted by opponents attempting to challenge his rule and wrest control of the empire from Awrangzīb. Such wars were of great financial strain to Awrangzīb’s administration. Additionally, it is said that his rule was beset with elements of corruption and inefficiency. Thus, some have concluded that Awrangzīb’s rule led to the eventual failure of the Mughal Empire.


Ādāb-i ʿĀlamgīrī     Anecdotes of Awrangzīb

Compiled by Šayḫ Abū al-Fatḥ Qābil Ḫān.

The Ādāb-i ʿĀlamgīrī was written by Šayḫ Abū al-Fatḥ Qābil Ḫān (d. 1073/1662) and compiled by Šayḫ Muḥammad Ṣādiq of Ambala in 1115/1703 or 1116/1704. It is a collection of letters, state papers and documents written in the name of Awrangzīb.

The Ādāb-i ʿĀlamgīrī consists of three parts: letters from 1055-59/1645-49, a supplement by Qābil Ḫān on the history of the wars of succession after Šāh Jahān had fallen ill and letters written between 1089/1678 and 1091/1680 by Šayḫ Muḥammad Ṣādiq.

Aḥkām-i ʿĀlamgīrī     Letters of Awrangzīb

Attributed to Ḥamīd al-Dīn Ḫān Bahādur, Nīmčah-I -ʿAlamgīrī, fl. 11th/17th c..

Aḥkām-i ʿĀlamgīrī is a collection of anecdotes, letters and imperial orders of Awrangzīb. This collection has been attributed to Awrangzīb’s trusted servant, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Ḫān Bahādur. However, there are diverging opinions as to the precise role the latter played in the compilation and/or authorship of this collection.

Ruqaʿāt-i ʿĀlamgīrī    

Ruqaʿāt-i ʿĀlamgīrī is a collection of letters Awrangzīb wrote to his siblings and father while he was a prince in charge of different provinces of the Empire.