In the year 143, when their descendants had greatly increased, they descended from the mountains, and took possession of certain places in Hindústán, such as Karmáj, Pesháwar, and Shanúrán. The Rájá of Láhore, who was related to the Rájá of Ajmír, resolved upon preventing their inroads, so he sent against them one of his nobles, in command of a thousand horse. The Afgháns advanced to meet him, and slew many of the Hindús. After this the Rájá of Láhore sent his nephew with two thousand horse and five thousand foot, well fitted out, against the encroaching Afgháns. On this occasion the people of Khilj and Ghor, and the men of Kábul, who were now adorned with the glory of Islám, considered it their duty to assist their countrymen, so they sent four thousand men to support them. When they joined, the flag of resistance was unfurled. In the course of five months seventy battles were fought with the infidels, and in many of the fights the confederates were victorious. But when winter brought up its forces, the infidels were unable to endure, and were reduced to great misery, so they abandoned the contest, and returned to their homes. When the winter was over, the nephew of the Rájá of Láhore returned to the attack with a fresh army. On this occasion, also, the men of Kábul and of Khilj brought up their reinforcements. The armies met between Karmáj and Pesháwar. Sometimes the infidels gave battle, and drove the Musulmáns to the hills; sometimes the Musulmáns took the offen­sive, and repulsed the infidels at the point of the sword. When the rainy season came on, the infidels were anxious about the rising of the waters of the Indus, so, without knowing whether they were victorious or defeated, they retired to their homes. The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were ques­tioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, “Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and dis­turbances.” Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns. The people of India call them Patán; but the reason for this is not known. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!

When the peace between the Rájá of Láhore and the infidel Gakkhars ended in war, the Gakkhars formed an alliance with their neighbours the Afgháns. The Rájá of Láhore made peace; and, to put an end to contention, he ceded to them some districts of the Lamghánát, and associated with them the tribe of Khilj, which, in the infancy of the Afgháns, had settled in that desert (sahrá). The conditions were, that they were to guard the frontier, and prevent the armies of Islám from entering into Hindústán. The Afgháns erected a fort in the Kohistán (mountains) of Pesháwar, which they called Khaibar; and they took possession of the country of Roh. During the ascendancy of the Sámánians, these (Afgháns and Gakkhars) prevented them from doing any injury to the territories of Láhore. This is why it was that the incursions of the Sámánians from first to last were made by way of Sind and Bhátiya. Roh is the name of a particular mountain, which extends in length from Swád and Bajaur to the town of Siwí, belonging to Bhakar. In breadth it stretches from Hasan Abdál to Kábul. Kandahár is situated in this territory.

When the throne of Ghazní came to Alptigín, his general Subuk-tigín made several attacks upon Lamghán and Multán, and carried off many prisoners. Unable to endure these attacks, the Afgháns applied in their extremity to Jaipál, the Rájá of Láhore, and com­plained of Subuktigín's inroads. Jaipál was aware that the army of Hindústán could not continuously occupy those parts, in con­sequence of the extreme cold; so he consulted with the Rájá of Bhátiya, and by his advice he called to his presence Shaikh Hamíd, a man of great consideration among the Afgháns, and raised him to the dignity of amír. Shaikh Hamíd in this way obtained possession of the territory of Lamghán and Multán, and carried on the government on his own behalf. Thus, at that date the Afgháns obtained an amír of their own, and became people of importance. When Alptigín was dead, and Subuktigín had succeeded him, Shaikh Hamíd thought it advisable to avoid war; so he sent to Subuktigín a message, saying: “You and I are both Musulmáns, and so there is a bond of union between us. It will be a gracious and proper course, if you will consider my people as your own, and give instructions to your victorious forces, that when they attack the country of Hindústán, they shall do no harm to us, your well-wishers.” Subuktigín, through the exigencies of the time, agreed to their proposal. After the death of Jaipál, Subuktigín, dealing in a friendly spirit with Shaikh Hamíd, conferred on him the ikta' of Multán. Sultán Mahmúd's course of action was different from his father's. He sub­dued the Afghán tribes, put their leaders to death, and reduced the people to a state of obedience and service.