Hasan Khán was well pleased, and the next day Masnad-i 'álí sent for Jamál Khán, and strongly recommending Hasan Khán to him, persuaded him to bestow on him his father's jágír, with several villages in addition to it, and said, “Whatever kindness you show to Hasan Khán, you will be doing a favour to me.” Then giving Hasan Khán a horse and a dress of honour, he dismissed him. After this, Hasan Khán did such service for Jamál Khán as satisfied and pleased him.
After Sultán Bahlol's death, Sikandar his son succeeded, and conquered Jaunpúr from his brother Baibak, and conferred the súbah on Jamál Khán, and ordered him to keep up 12,000 horse, and to assign them jágírs. Jamál Khán, who was much pleased with Hasan Khán's good service, took him with him, and gave him in jágír the parganas of Sahsarám, Hájípúr, and Tánda,* near Benares, to maintain 500 horsemen.
Hasan Khán had eight sons. Faríd Khán and Nizám Khán were born of one Afghán mother; 'Alí and Yúsuf of another mother; Khurram* and Shádí Khán of a third; Sulaimán and Ahmad of a fourth.
Hasan Khán did not care for or love the mother of Faríd and Nizám, but was very fond of his slave-girls, and was especially attached to the mother of Sulaimán and Ahmad; and she gained such influence over Hasan Khán, that she entirely ruled him. Angry words often passed between Hasan and Faríd. When he was assigned jágírs, Míán Hasan showed little partiality to Faríd, and did not give him a jágír which contented him. Faríd Khán, annoyed with his father, went to Jamál Khán at Jaunpúr. When Míán Hasan discovered that Faríd had gone there, he wrote to Jamál Khán thus: “Faríd Khán, being annoyed with me, has gone to you without sufficient cause. I trust in your kindness to appease him, and send him back; but if refusing to listen to you, he will not return, I trust you will keep him with you, for I wish him to be instructed in religious and polite learning.”
Jamál Khán sent for Faríd, and advised him in every possible way to return to his father; but he refused, and said, “If my father wants me back to instruct me in learning, there are in this city many learned men: I will study here.” Jamál Khán made no further objection. Faríd employed himself in studying Arabic at Jaunpúr. He also studied thoroughly the Káfíá,* with the commentaries of Kází Shahábu-d dín, and the biographies of most of the kings of ancient times. He had got by heart the Sikandar-náma, the Gulistán, and Bostán, etc., and was also reading the works of the philosophers. Subsequently, whenever, during his reign, learned men came to ask him for a maintenance (madad-ma'ásh), he used to ask them about the Háshia-i Hindia, and he still retained his liking for books of history and the lives of ancient kings.
It happened after some years, that Hasan Khán came to Jamál Khán, when all his kinsmen who were in Jaunpúr reproached him for having sent Faríd away from his presence for the sake of a slave-girl; and they remarked that Faríd Khán, young as he was, gave promise of future greatness; that he bore the marks of excellence on his forehead, and that in all the tribe of Súr there was none who possessed learning, talent, wisdom, and prudence like him; and he had qualified himself so well, that if Hasan Khán would entrust him with the charge of a pargana, he would discharge it excellently well, and perfectly perform all his duties. Hasan Khán assented to what his kindred said, and replied, “Pacify him and bring him to me; I will agree to whatever you say.” His friends replied, “As you are generally in Jaunpúr in attendance on Jamál Khán, it is advisable you should entrust the administration of your two parganas to Faríd.” Hasan Khán agreed to his kinsmen's request. In great glee they came to Faríd, and said, “Míán Hasan has agreed to everything we have said in your behalf, and has dissented from nothing. It behoves you also to assent to what we say to you.” Faríd Khán replied, “I will agree to anything you may say, nor will I ever draw back from it; but as soon as Hasan Khán sees the face of the slave-girl, he will do whatever she tells him.” His kinsmen rejoined: “Do you nevertheless agree; if he departs from his agreement with us, we will remonstrate with him.”
When Faríd heard these words of his kinsmen, he said, “To please you I accept the management of the two districts. I will not fail to do my duty to the best of my power.” Faríd Khán, much pleased, accompanied his relatives to his father's presence. His father also was much gratified, and kept him for some months with him. Afterwards, Hasan Khán wished to send Faríd to the parganas; but Faríd representing to Hasan Khán that he wished first to speak with him, he obtained leave to do so, and thus began: “Many soldiers and subordinates, our kinsmen, have jágírs in these parganas. I shall devote myself to increase the prosperity of the district, and that depends on a just administration; for it has been said by the learned:” * * * When Hasan Khán heard his son's speech he was much gratified, and said:—“I will give you the power both to grant and to resume the soldier's jágírs, and I will not reverse anything you may do.” He accordingly sent Faríd Khán to his two parganas, with every mark of favour.
When he got to his jágírs, he said:—“Let all the head men, (mukaddamán) and the cultivators (muzárí'án) on whose labour the prosperity of the district depends, and all the village accountants (patwárís), attend my presence. When they came, he summoned also the soldiery, and thus addressed them:—“My father (abú) has committed to me the power of appointing and dismissing you. I have set my heart on improving the prosperity of the district, in which object also your own interests are concerned; and by this means I hope to establish my reputation.” * * * When he had finished exhorting the soldiery, he turned to the peasantry, and said:—“This day I give you your choice as to your mode of payment. Do whatever is most advantageous to your own interests in every possible way.”
Some of the head-men asked for written agreements for a fixed money rent;* others preferred payment in kind (kismat-í ghalla). Accordingly he gave leases and took agreements, and fixed the payments for measuring the fields (jaríbána), and the fees for the tax-collectors and measurers (muhassilána); and he said to the Chaudharis and head-men:—“I know well that the cultivation depends on the humble peasants, for if they be ill off they will produce nothing, but if prosperous they will produce much. I know the oppressions and exactions of which you have been guilty towards the cultivators; and for this reason I have fixed the payments for measurements, and the tax-gatherers' fees,—that if you exact from the cultivators more on this account than is fixed, it may not be credited to you in making up your accounts. Be it known to you, that I will take the accounts of the fees in my own presence. Whatever dues are rightly taken I will sanction, and compel the cultivators to pay them; and I will also collect the Government dues for the autumn harvest in the autumn, and for the spring harvest in the spring; for balances of Government dues are the ruin of a pargana, and the cause of quarrels between the cultivators and the Government officers. It is right for a ruler to show leniency to the cultivators at the period of measurement, and to have a regard to the actual produce; but when the time of payment comes he should show no leniency, but collect the revenue with all strictness. If he perceives the cultivators are evading payment, he should so chastise them as to be an example to others not to act in the same way.” He then said to the peasantry:—“Whatever matter you have to represent, bring it always yourselves to me. I will suffer no one to oppress you.”