Death of Muhammad Ghorí.

In the year 602 H. (1205 A.D.), Muhammad Ghorí determined on prosecuting a holy war in Hind, in order to repair the fortunes of his servants and armies; for within the last few years Khurásán, on account of the disasters it had sustained, yielded neither men nor money. When he arrived in Hind, God gave him such a vic­tory that his treasures were replenished, and his armies renewed. On his return, after crossing the Jailam, he was encamped on the banks of the Jíhún (Indus), so that one-half of the royal enclosure, where the private apartments were, was in the water. In consequence of which no precaution had been taken to ensure their protection. About the time of the mid-day siesta, two or three Hindús came through the water, and falling like fire upon the royal tent, slew the Sultán, who was entirely unprepared for such a treacherous attack.

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Sultán Jalálu-d dín in Hindustán.*

When the Sultán had survived the double danger of water and fire, namely, the whirlpools of the Sind and the flame of Changíz Khán's persecution, he was joined by six or seven of his followers, who had escaped from drowning, and whom the fiery blast of evil had not sent to the dust of corruption; but, as no other course except retreat and concealment among the forests was left to him, he remained two or three days longer in his covert,* until he was joined by fifty more men. The spies whom he had sent out to watch the proceedings of Changíz Khán, returned, and brought him intelligence that a body* of Hindu rascals,* horse and foot, were lying only two parasangs dis­tance from the Sultán, occupied in rioting and debauchery. The Sultán ordered his followers to arm themselves each with a club, and then making a night attack upon this party, he slew most of them, capturing their animals and arms.

He was then joined by other parties, mounted on horses and mules,* and soon after certain intelligence was brought to him that two or three thousand men of the armies of Hind were en­camped in the neighbourhood. The Sultán attacked them with a hundred and twenty men, and slew many of those Hindús with the Hindí sword, and set up his own troops with the plunder he obtained.*

Arabic Verse.

Whoever requires anything from me, let him live by his sword,
Whoever requires anything from other men, let him solicit them.

When the news spread throughout Hindustán of the Sultán's fame and courage, five or six thousand mounted men assembled from the hills of Balála and Mankála, for the purpose of attack­ing him. On his gaining intelligence of this movement, he set upon them with five hundred cavalry which he had under him, and routed and slew the Hindú armies.* The effect of this suc­cess was that he was joined by several more adherents from all quarters, so that his force amounted to three thousand men.

When the world-conquering Changíz Khán, who was then in the neighbourhood of Ghazní, heard of these new levies, he despatched a Mughal army, under Túrtáí, to expel him, and as the Sultán was not able to oppose him, he went towards Dehli, when Túrtáí crossed the river. The Mughals, when they heard of his flight, returned and pillaged the country round Malikpúr.

The Sultán, when he was two or three days distant from Dehli, deputed a messenger named 'Ainu-l mulk to Sultán Shamsu-d dín, saying—“The great have opportunies of showing mercy, since it is evident in our relations with each other, that I have come to claim your protection and favour, and the chances are rare of meeting with a person of my rank on whom to bestow a kind reception. If the road of friendship should be made clear, and the ear of brotherhood should listen in our communications with each other, and if, in joy and affliction, aid and support be mutually afforded, and if our object and desires should be accom­plished, when our enemies witness our alliance, the teeth of their enmity will be blunted.” He then solicited that some spot* might be indicated in which he might reside for a few days.

As the courage and determination of the Sultán were noised abroad, and his exceeding power and predominance were cele­brated throughout the world, Sultán Shamsu-d dín, after receiving the message, was engaged for some time in deliberation, reflecting upon the importance of the result, alarmed at his proceedings, and apprehensive of his attacks. It is said that he entertained a design against the life of 'Ainu-l mulk, so that he died;* but Sultán Shamsu-d dín sent an envoy of his own, with presents suited to such a distinguished guest, and offered the following subterfuge for not according to him the place of residence he desired, namely, “that the climate of these parts is not favourable, and there is no tract suited to the Sultán; but that, if he wished, Shamsu-d dín would fix upon some place near Dehli where the Sultán might take up his abode, and that it would be made over to him as soon as it was cleared of rebels and enemies.”

When the Sultán heard this reply he returned, and reached the borders of Balála and Mankála, where from several quarters he was joined by his soldiers who had escaped, and by entire bands of those who had been wounded by the sword, insomuch that his troops amounted to ten thousand men.

He sent Táju-d dín Malik Khilj to the mountains of Júd, who plundered that tract, and obtained much booty. He sent an emissary, also, to ask Ráí Kokár Saknín's* daughter in marriage. The Ráí consented, and despatched his son with a force to serve under the Sultán, who bestowed upon him the title of Katlagh Khán.*

There was a chief, by name Kubácha, who had the country of Sind under his government, and aspired to independence. There was enmity between him and Ráí Saknín Kokár. The Sultán despatched an army against Kubácha, and appointed Uzbek Páí to command it. Kubácha was encamped with twenty thousand men on the banks of the Sind, at the distance of a parasang from Uchh. Uzbek Páí, at the head of seven thousand men, suddenly falling upon them by night, routed and dispersed them. Ku-bácha embarked on a boat, and fled to Akar and Bakkar,* two forts on an island, while Uzbek Páí took up his quarters in Kubácha's camp, captured all those whom he found within its precincts, and sent tidings of the victory to the Sultán, who, marching onwards, arrived at the camp in which the tent of Kubácha was pitched.

Kubácha afterwards, flying from Akar and Bakkar, proceeded to Multán. The Sultán sent an ambassador to him, requiring the surrender of Amír Khán's son and daughter, who had fled from the battle of the Sind, and had taken shelter at Multán. Money was also demanded. Kubácha complied with the requisition, delivered up the son and daughter of Amír Khán, and sent a large sum of money for the use of the Sultán, solicit­ing that his territory might not be injured.

When the weather became hot, the Sultán left Uchh with the intention of proceeding through Balála and Mankála, to take up his summer-quarters in the mountains of Júd, and on his way laid siege to the fort of Parsrúr,* where he was wounded in the head by an arrow. When the fort was captured, the whole garrison was put to the sword. He returned from that place, when he received intelligence of the advance of the Mughal armies in pursuit of him, and as his way led him near Multán, he sent an envoy to Kubácha to intimate that the Sultán was passing in that direction, and to demand tribute. Kubácha refused, and assuming an attitude of defiance, advanced to fight him. The standards of the Sultán halted but for a moment, and then departed, returning towards Uchh, which also had revolted against him. The Sultán remained before it two days, and after setting fire to the city, went towards Sadúsán.*