[Printed Text, p. 111.]

This book contains an abridged account of the Shansabání Sultáns, whose glory added lustre to the throne of Ghazní, and elevated the kingdoms of Hind and Khurásán. The first of them was Sultán Saifu-d dín Súrí. After him came Sultán 'Aláu-d dín Husain, who took Ghazní, but did not reign there. The throne was next taken by Sultán Mu'izzu-d dín Muhammad Sám. When he was killed the crown was confided to his slave, Sultán Táju-d dín Yalduz, and so the line ended.

1.—Sultán Saifu-d dín Súrí.

Saifu-d dín was a great king, of handsome appearance and noble carriage, and distinguished for courage, energy, humanity, justice, and liberality. He was the first individual of this family who received the title of Sultán. When the news reached him of the destruction which had fallen upon his elder brother the king of the Jabbál (Kutbu-d dín), he resolved upon taking vengeance upon Bahrám Sháh. He gathered a great force in the states of Ghor and marched to Ghazní, where he routed Bahrám and took the city. Bahrám fled to Hindustán, and Saifu-d dín ascended the throne of Ghazní, when he placed the territories of Ghor under his brother, Sultán Baháu-d dín Súrí, father of Ghiyásu-d dín and Mu'izzu-d dín. After he had secured Ghazní the chiefs of the army and the nobles of the city and environs submitted to him, and he conferred many favours upon them, so that the army and the subjects of Bahrám Sháh were overwhelmed by his bounteous care. When winter came on he sent his own forces back to Ghor, and kept with him only the troops and officers of Bahrám Sháh in whom he placed full confidence. His wazír, Saiyid Majdu-d dín Musawí, and a few of his old servants remained with him, all the rest of his officers both at Court and in the country had been in the service of the old government.

In the depth of the winter, when the roads to Ghor were closed by heavy falls of snow, the people of Ghazní saw that no army or assistance could come to Saifu-d dín from that quarter, so they wrote to Bahrám Sháh explaining how matters stood, and press­ing upon him the necessity of seizing this favourable opportunity for the recovery of his dominions. The deposed king acted upon these advices, and marched suddenly to Ghazní and attacked his foe. Súrí, with his wazír and his old servants, abandoned the city and took the road to Ghor, but the horsemen of Bahrám Sháh pursued them and overtook them in the neighbourhood of Sang-i Surákh.* They fought desperately until they were unhorsed, and then retreated into the hills, where they kept up such a shower of arrows that the foe could not approach them. When the last arrow had been shot the horsemen captured them, bound them hand and foot, and conducted them to Ghazní. At the gate of the city Sultán Súrí was placed upon a camel, and his wazír, Majdu-d dín, upon another. They were then led ignominiously round the city, and from the tops of the houses, ashes, dirt, and filth were thrown upon their venerable heads. When they reached the one-arched bridge of Ghazní, the Sultán and his wazír were both gibbeted over the bridge. Such was the dis­graceful cruelty practised upon this handsome, excellent, just, and brave king. The Almighty, however, prospered the arms of Sultán 'Aláu-d dín Jahán-soz, brother of Sultán Súrí, who exacted full retribution for this horrible deed, as we have already related in another place.

2. Sultánu-l Ghází Mu'izzu-d dunyá wau-d dín Abú-l Muzaffar
Muhammad bin Sám

Historians relate that Sultán 'Alau-d-dín was succeeded by his son Sultán Saifu-d dín. This king released the two princes Ghiyá-su-d dín and Mu'izzu-d dín (his cousins) who were confined in a fort of Wahíristán, as has been already narrated in the history of Sultán Ghiyásu-d dín. Prince Ghiyásu-d dín dwelt peacefully at Fíroz-koh in the service of Sultán Saifu-d dín, and Prince Mu'izzu-d din went to Bámíán into the service of his uncle Fakhru-d dín Mas'úd.

When Ghiyásu-d dín succeeded to the throne of Ghor after the tragical death of Saifu-d dín, and the intelligence thereof came to Bámíán, Fakhru-d dín addressed his nephew Mu'izzu-d dín saying, “Your brother is acting, what do you mean to do? You must bestir yourself.” Mu'izzu-d dín bowed respectfully to his uncle, left the Court, and started just as he was for Fíroz-koh. When he arrived there he waited upon his brother and paid his respects, as has been already related. One year he served his brother, but having taken some offence he went to Sijistán to Malik Shamsu-d dín Sijistání and staid there one winter. His brother sent messengers to bring him back, and when he arrived he assigned to him the countries of Kasr-kajúrán and Istiya.* When he had established his authority over the whole of Garmsír he made over to his brother the city of Takíná-bád, which was the largest town in Garmsír. This Takínábád is the place which was the cause of the quarrel with the house of Mahmúd Subuktigín, and it passed into the hands of the kings of Ghor. Sultán-i Ghází 'Aláu-d dín sent the following quatrain to Khusrú Sháh bin Bahrám Sháh:

“Thy father first laid the foundation of this place
“Before the people of the world had all fallen under injustice.
“Beware lest for one Takínábád thou shouldest bring
“The empire of the house of Mahmúd to utter ruin.”

When Sultán Mu'izzu-d dín became master of Takínábád the armies and leaders of the Ghuzz had fled before the forces of Khitá towards Ghazní, where they remained for twelve years, having wrested the country from the hands of Khusrú Shah and Khusrú Malik. Sultán Mu'izzu-d dín kept continually assailing them from Takínábád, and troubling the country. At length in the year 569 H. (1173 A.D.) Sultán Ghiyásu-dín conquered Ghazní, and returned to Ghor, after placing his brother Mu'izzu-d dín upon the throne, as has been before related. This prince secured the territories of Ghazní, and two years afterwards in 570 H. (1174 A.D.) he conquered Gurdez.

In the third year he led his forces to Multán and delivered that place from the hands of the Karmatians. In the same year 571 H. (1175 A.D.) the people of Sankarán* revolted and made great confusion, so he marched against them and put most of them to the sword. It has been written by some that these Sankaráníáns have been called martyrs, in agreement with the declaration of the Kurán, but as they stirred up strife and re­volted they were made examples of, and were put to death from political necessity.

In the year after this victory he conducted his army by way of Uch and Multán towards Nahrwála. The Ráí of Nahrwála, Bhím-deo,* was a minor, but he had a large army and many elephants. In the day of battle the Muhammadans were de­feated and the Sultán was compelled to retreat. This happened in the year 574 H. (1178 A.D.).

In 575 H. (1179 A.D.) he attacked and conquered Farsháwar (Pesháwar), and two years afterwards he advanced to Lohor (Lahore). The power of the Ghaznivides was now drawing to its close and their glory was departed, so Khusrú Malik sent his son as a hostage, and an elephant as a present to the Sultán. This was in the year 577 H. (1181 A.D.) Next year the Sultán marched to Dewal, subdued all that country to the sea shore, and returned with great spoil. In 580 H. (1184 A.D.) he went to Lahore, ravaged all the territories of that kingdom, and re­turned after building the fort of Síálkot, in which he placed Husain Kharmíl as governor. When the Sultán was gone, Khusrú Malik assembled the forces of Hindustán, and having also obtained a body of Kokhars (Gakkars) he laid siege to Síálkot, but, after some interval, was obliged to withdraw. The Sultán returned to Lahore in 581 H. (1185 A.D.).