The Arabians proceed towards Persia. — Progress through Kirman,
Seestan, Kohistan, and Nyshapoor. — Settlement in Kho-
THE first chieftain who spread the banners of the true faith on the plains of Hind was Mohalib * Bin Aby Sufra.
A. H. 28.
A. D. 648. In the 28th year of the Hijra, shortly after the accession of the Caliph Ooth-
Two years after this event, the Caliph Oothman
removed Wuleed Bin Atiba from the government
of Koofa on account of his licentious excesses, and
appointed Syeed Bin Aby-ool-Aas governor in his
stead. Syeed shortly after led an army through
Persia as far as Tubristan; on which occasion he
was accompanied by Hussun and Hoossein, the two
sons of Ally, and by their exertions he reduced the
province of Joorjan, the capital of which is Astra-
After these successes Abdoolla quitted the army and proceeded to Mecca, making the following distribution of the conquered provinces amongst his respective generals:—
To Keis, the son of Hashem, — Khorassan.
To Huneef, the son of Keis, — Murv, Talikhan, and Nyshapoor.
To Khalid, the son of Abdoolla, — Badghees, Goor, and Joorjistan.
A. H. 32.
A. D. 652. In the year 32, Abdool Rahman Bin Rubeea was deputed from Bagdad to Persia to propagate the true faith; but being overpowered by numbers, he was slain and his army dispersed; many of his followers sought protection in Joorjan and Geelan. In the same year, Karoon, one of the nobles of the Persian government, having learned that Abdoolla had gone to Mecca, and had divided his army over the several conquered provinces, collected a body of forty thousand men composed of the inhabitants of Tubus, Herat, Badghees, Ghoor, and Kohistan, and marched against the Moslem forces. Karoon was, however, defeated by Abdoolla Bin Jazim, one of the officers of Huneef, in Nyshapoor, with an inconsiderable body of four thousand men, for which service Abdoolla received the charge of the government of Khorassan.
A. H. 44.
A. D. 664. In the year 44, the Caliph Moavia Bin Aby Soofian nominated Zeead, the son of Oomya, to the government of Bussora, Seestan, and Khorassan. In the same year also Abdool Ruhman Bin Shimur, another Arab Ameer of distinction, marched from Murv to Kabul, where he made converts of upwards of twelve thousand persons. At the same time, also, Mohalib Bin Aby-
A. H. 53.
A. D. 672. In the year 53, Zeead, the son of Oom-
A. H. 56.
A. D. 678. Three years after this, Salim was superseded by Saad, Bin Oothman Bin Iffan now appointed governor of Khorassan by the Caliph Moavia. Saad was recalled in the
A. H. 59.
A. D. 681.
year 59, and Abdool Ruhman, the son of Zeead, who formerly invaded Kabul, was nominated ruler of Khorassan. He was, subsequently, removed to make room for Sulim Bin-
A. H. 62.
A. D. 683.
Zeead, in the year 62, by Yezeed, the
son of Moavia, who had then succeeded
to the Caliphate. Among the persons who
accompanied Sulim to his new government was
Mohalib, the son of Aby-Suffra. Shortly after his
arrival in Khorassan, Sulim deputed his brother,
Yezeed Bin Zeead, to Seestan. Not long after,
Yezeed, having learned that the Prince of Kabul,
throwing off his allegiance, had attacked and taken
prisoner Aby Oobeyda, the son of Zeead, the late
governor of Seestan, he marched with a force to
recover that province, but was defeated in a pitched
battle. When Sulim heard this news, he sent
Tilla Bin Abdoolla, an officer of his court, as
envoy to the court of Kabul, to ransom Aby
Oobeyda; to obtain which object he paid 500,000
dirhems. Tilla afterwards received the government
of Seestan as a reward for his services on
this occasion, where, having collected a large force,
he subdued Kabul, and Khalid Bin Abdoolla
(said by some to be the son of Khalid Bin
Wuleed, and by others the son of Aboo Jehl) was
nominated to its government. Khalid being subsequently
superseded, became apprehensive of
returning to Arabia by the route of Persia, on
account of the enemies he had in that country, and
equally so of remaining in Kabul, under his successor.
He retired, therefore, with his family,
and a number of Arab retainers, into the Sooli-
I have read in the Mutla-ool-Anwar, * a work written by a respectable author, and which I procured at Boorhanpoor, a town of Kandeish in the Dekkan, that the Afghans are Copts of the race of the Pharaohs; and that when the prophet Moses got the better of that infidel who was overwhelmed in the Red Sea, many of the Copts became converts to the Jewish faith; but others, stubborn and self-willed, refusing to embrace the true faith, leaving their country, came to India, and eventually settled in the Soolimany mountains, where they bore the name of Afghans. At the time when Abraha marched against Mecca, he was accompanied by several tribes of infidels from far and near, and, on that occasion, a body of these Afghans, * it is said, also joined his forces. These tribes were eventually annihilated.
At the time of the settlement of Abdoolla, the Afghans, already converts to the true faith, received the Mahomedans among them, whose flocks and herds increased; and their agriculture flourished so rapidly, that in a few years afterwards, at the time of the invasion of Sind and Mooltan by Mahomed Kassim, they afforded protection to his followers
A. H. 63.
A. D. 682.
who remained with them. In the year 63, the Mahomedan Afghans, issuing from their mountains, invaded and laid waste the inhabited countries, such as Kirman, Sheewuran, and Pishawur. The Raja of Lahore, who was related to the Ray† * of Ajmeer, sent 1000 horse to attack and annihilate these marauders; but the former being defeated with severe loss, the Raja despatched his nephew with a force of 2000 horse and 5000 infantry to make a second endeavour to expel them.
The Afghans having procured reinforcements from Khulij, Ghoor, and Kabul, to the number of four thousand men, marched against the Indian forces. The two armies fought, in the five ensuing months, seventy actions; but the winter setting in severely, the Indians were compelled to retreat to Lahore, an object which they effected with great difficulty. In the following spring the Indians again took the field, under their former general. The Afghans met them on a plain between Kirman and Pishawur, where several indecisive actions took place, till at length the rainy season being about to commence, the Indians took the opportunity of a temporary advantage which they had gained over the Afghans to retreat by forced marches, so as to cross the Neelab while yet fordable. The same cause also induced the Mahomedans to return within their frontiers. About this period some disputes arising between the Gukkurs * and the Raja of Lahore, this race formed a treaty of alliance, defensive and offensive with the Afghans, who compelled the Raja of Lahore to submit to terms from the Gukkurs, to whom he could otherwise himself have dictated conditions.
This treaty included the cession of certain territories in perpetuity to the Gukkurs, and to the tribe of Khullij, which was permitted by the Afghans to reside in the country of Lumghan; it was secretly provided, also, that they should protect the Indian frontier from the Mahomedan invasions. The Mahomedan Afghans, notwithstanding, still continued their depredations, and advanced near Pishawur, where they erected a fort in the hills to which they gave the name of Khybur, subduing at the same time the province of Roh. This district extends from Swad and Beejowr, on the north, as far south as Seewy near Bhukkur in Sind; and from east to west from Hussun-Abdall to Kabul and Kandahar.
During the reign of the Samany kings, the
Afghans formed a barrier between the kingdom of
Mooltan and Lahore, and thus we find the Samany
troops always limited their predatory excursions to
Sind and Tatta. When the government of Ghizny
devolved on Aluptugeen, his general, Subooktu-
From that period the Afghans became military
chiefs. On the death of Aluptugeen, Subooktu-
Subooktugeen, from motives of policy, avoided the districts of Sheikh Humeed by every means in his power; but his son Mahmood, on the contrary, made furious war against the Afghans, putting to death all who did not acknowledge his supremacy, by which means he eventually compelled the whole of the tribes to submit to him.