Ascended the throne in Āgra in the year 923 H. with the concurrence of the Amīrs, and Shahzāda Jalāl Khān ibn-i-Sulān Sikandar* [was appointed to the rule of Jaunpūr and was styled by the title of Sulān, while Khān-i-Jahān Lūhānī* governor of Rāprī came to Āgra] and blamed the Amīrs greatly for associating (Jalāl Khān) in the government* of the kingdom; and after that he had pointed out to them the foolishness* of this procedure orders were issued to the Amīrs of the eastern districts to seize Jalāl Khān and bring him to the Court. He however went from Jaunpūr to Kalpī and collected a large following, and after establishing the Khubah and sikkah in his own name, assumed the title of Sulān Jalālu-d-Dīn. A‘am Hūmāyūn Shirwānī sided with him for a time, but eventually came and had an audience of Sulān Ibrāhīm. Sulān Ibrāhīm sent to the fortress of Hānsī certain of his brothers who were imprisoned, for instance Shāhzāda Isma‘īl Khān, and Ḥusain Khān, and others,* and appointed for each of them food and clothing and two* servants from the private establishment. Then he proceeded in person with the object of conquering* the Eastern districts, and came to Bhūn Gānw, and having settled the disturbances in Mawās* came to Qanauj. There he nominat­ed a large number of Amīrs to proceed against Jalāl Khān, who with thirty thousand cavalry and a certain number of elephants had gone off in the direction of Āgra. Malik Ādam Kākar was 327. sent by the Sulān to defend Āgra, and certain other Amīrs arrived to support him. They succeeded in persuading Jalāl Khān, by making pleasing overtures and using attractive arguments, to surrender his paraphernalia of royalty and kingly splendour to the Sulān, in order that they might prefer his application for pardon of his past offences and obtain for him the Kalpī district as a jāegīr. Jalāl Khān instantly agreed, and made over his royal canopy, his kettle-drums, etcetera to Malik Ādam with instructions to convey them to the Sulān in the neighbourhood of Itāwa.

The Sulān would not agree to his proposal of peace, and despatch­ed a large army to oppose Jalāl Khān, who fled in consternation and took refuge* with the Rāja of Gwāliār, and the Amīrs of Sikandar's party, who had heretofore been a source of weakness to the administration of the empire, one and all owned allegiance to the Sulān. The Sulān experienced* a revulsion of feeling with regard to Mīyān Bhoh, who was the chief of the Amīrs of Sikan-dar, and had been his vazīr and privy councillor, accordingly he cast him into chains and sent him to Malik Ādam; however, he treated his son with kindness and advanced him to the high offices formerly held by his father. Mīyān Bhoh died in prison, and A‘am Humāyūn Shirwānī, the Governor of Karra, was sent with thirty thousand cavalry and three* hundred elephants to attempt the reduction of Gwāliār. Jalāl Khān fled from Gwāliār and went to Mālwa to Sulān Maḥmūd of Mālwa. After the arrival of the Sulān's troops Rāi Vikramājīt the son of Rāi Mān Singh,* who, after the decease* of his father, held the government of Gwāliār, was not able to cope with them, and could not properly defend the fortress. The fortress of Bādalgarh, which lies below* the fort­ress of Gwāliār,* a very lofty structure, was taken from Rāi Mān Singh* and fell into the hands of the Muslims,* and a brazen animal,* which was worshipped by the Hindūs also fell into their hands, and was sent by them to Āgra, whence it was sent by Sulān Ibrahīm to Dihlī, and was put up over the city gate. This image 328. was removed to Fatḥpūr in the year 992 H., ten years before the composition of this history,* where it was seen by the author of this work. It was converted into gongs, and bells, and implements of all kinds.

In those days Sulān Ibrāhīm becoming distrustful of the old Amīrs, imprisoned the greater number of them,* and expelled (others) in different directions; and inasmuch as Jalāl Khān could not get on with Sulān Maḥmūd of Mālwa, he fled from Mālwa and came to the country of Kara Kanka,* where he fell into the hands of a tribe of the Gonds,* who took him prisoner and sent him as a present* to the Sulān who ordered him to be taken to Hānsī and imprisoned with his brothers. While on the way thi­ther he drank of the draught of martyrdom.

The draught of sovereignty and glory is so sweet
That for its sake kings will shed the blood of their brethren;
Shed not the blood of the afflicted in heart for the sake of
For they will pour the selfsame draught into the cup for

After some time, in accordance with the orders of Sulān Ibrāhīm, Ā‘am Humāyūn Shirwānī, together with his son Fatḥ Khān, abandoned the siege of Gwāliār Fort which he was within an ace of taking, and came to Āgra, where both were made prisoners. Islām Khān the son of Ā‘am [Khān]* Humāyūn, gathered together* a following in Karra by means of his father's wealth, and, having brought over to his side the Amīrs of that district, fought a battle with Aḥmad Khān* the governor of Karra, and defeated him. Sulān Ibrāhīm accordingly despatched Aḥmad Khān, the brother of Ā‘am Humāyūn Lodī, in command of a vast army,* to oppose the Amīrs who had fled from his camp and had joined Islām Khān. With him also he sent* other 329. Khāns of eminence, such as Khān-i-Khānān Farmalī, and others of similar rank. Near the township of Bāngarmau, in the neigh­bourhood of Qanauj,* Iqbāl Khān, the chief cavalry commander under Ā‘am Humāyūn, with five thousand cavalry and some splendid elephants, broke out of ambuscade and attacked the forces of the Sulān, and after throwing them all into confusion* withdrew (into ambush). The Sulān by way of precaution despatched* a further force to their assistance, but the enemy, who had about forty thousand cavalry, well armed, and five hundred elephants, shewed a firm front against them, until Naṣīr Khān Luhānī with other generals arrived from the direction of Bihār and engaged the enemy on both sides. A fierce conflict ensued between the two armies, such a conflict as baffles descrip­tion, and after a severe struggle* the rebels were defeated. Islām Khān was killed and Sa‘īd Khān Lodī was taken prisoner, thus the rebellion was quenched.

Do not inflict ingratitude upon a benefactor and generous
Like the cloud, which receives bounty from the ocean, and
rains a storm of arrows upon its breast.*
As far as you are able, make the requital of favours your habit
and custom,
Like the river, which gives to the clouds an ocean in return
for one drop of its rain.

And withal that he had gained so important a victory, yet was not the heart of the Sulān favourably disposed towards the Amīrs: and they also being aware of this, raised in all directions the banners of antagonism. In the meanwhile, many of the eminent Amīrs of royal descent, as for example Ā‘am Humāyūn Shirwānī, and Mīyān Bhoh, the Vazīr of Sulān Sikandar, departed from this world in the confinement of the prison-house.*

This is that same journeying place, this interminable desert
In which the army of Salm and Tūr was lost;*
This is the selfsame stage, this world of ruin
Which witnessed the palace of Afrāsiyāb.*

Mīyān Ḥusain* Farmalī was assassinated in Chanderī, at the 330. instigation of the Sulān, by certain ruffianly Shaikh Zādas of that place, and Daryā Khān Lūhānī, governor of Bihār, and Khān­i-Jahān Lodī being alarmed,* became disaffected. After a short time Daryā Khān died, and his son Bahādur Khān turned rebel and occupied the place of his father. The revolted Amīrs made common cause with him, so that he collected a force of nearly a hundred thousand cavalry in the vicinity of Bihār, and gained possession of that country,* assuming the title of Sulān Muḥam-mad, * establishing the Khubah and sikka in his own name. His army penetrated as far as the country of Sambal, and brought it within the area of their control.* The Khubah was read in his name in Bihār and the territories adjacent, for some time. It so happened that the son of Daulat Khān Lodī, whose name was Khān-i-Khānān* came from Lāhor to Āgra to visit the Sulān, but being suspicious of his intentions fled from his court, and went to his father. Daulat Khān, seeing no hope of obtaining release from the (wrath of the) Sulān, sent that same son of his* to Kābul. He accordingly did homage to the supreme King, Zahīru­d-Dīn Bābar, and induced him to advance against Hindūstān. Eventually Khān-i-Khānān laid a complaint* against his father before the supreme King Bābar, and poisoned his mind against him, and led to discord between them, as will be related if the Most High God so will it. Khān-i-Khānān was living up to the date of the rebellion of Sher Shāh, but at last died in prison. Sulān Muḥammad departed to the world of permanence from Bihār, and the Amīrs on all sides rebelled against Sulān Ibrāhīm, and great damage was inflicted upon the kingdom. The pillars of the 331. empire began to totter,* and the standard of the fortune of King Bābar floated high.